I. Classification of Matter MATTER (anything that has mass & takes up space)
MATTER PURE SUBSTANCE (matter with a definite composition) Ex- water, helium, carbon dioxide, sodium
MATTER MIXTURE (2 or more pure substances combined in ANY ratio) Ex- lemonade, concrete, shaving cream
Pure Substances COMPOUND (2 or more elements chemically bonded together) Ex- sodium chloride, water, glucose, CLUE- chemical formulas have 2 capital letters; it is NOT on the periodic table
Pure Substances ELEMENT (cannot be broken down any further) Ex- carbon, oxygen, lithium, hydrogen CLUE- It is any substance written on the periodic table
Mixtures SOLUTION (a homogeneous mixture that cannot be filtered & will NEVER settle upon standing) Ex- saline solution, grape juice CLUE- It is clear (might be clear & colored)
Mixtures COLLOIDAL SUSPENSION (a homogeneous mixture that cannot be filtered & will EVENTUALLY settle upon standing) Ex- mayo, milk, fog, cool whip CLUE- it creates the Tyndall Effect
Mixtures COURSE SUSPENSION (a heterogeneous mixture that can be filtered & will QUICKLY settle upon standing) Ex- Italian Dressing, OJ CLUE- it has distinguishable “pieces” in it.
SOLUTION ALLOY (a special type of solution where 2 or more METALS mix together----a “metallic solution”) Ex- brass (zinc & copper); pewter (tin & lead); steel (iron & carbon) CLUE- It is NOT on the periodic table
Magnetism II. Physical Properties of matter that we will use to help us separate a solution? A. ___________________________ Demonstration – Magnetism:
B. ___________________________ C. ____________________________ 1. Lab techniques that uses phase change separation. a. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ___________________________ Density Phase Changes Distillation – uses different boiling points of the pure substances involved to separate and CAPTURE all of the substances of the mixture
Crystallization – separation technique that uses the boiling point to capture ONLY the substance with the HIGHEST boiling point b. ______________________ D. ___________________________ 1. Lab techniques that use particle size separation. a. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Particle Size Filtering – using a screen or paper to help retain the larger items, while the smaller pass through
Can dissolve in water (Soluble in water) E.__________________________________
III. Characteristics of Solutions A. Parts of a Solution Solute – the substance being dissolved Solvent – the substance doing the dissolving
Able to dissolve in each other B. Terms related to solutions: 1. Soluble -___________________________ _________________________________ ex – 2. Insoluble - _________________________ __________________________________ ex - Salt is soluble in water NOT able to dissolve in each other Water is insoluble in water
the amount of solute in a solution 3. concentration - _________________________ _____________________________________ 4. Diluted solution - _______________________ ______________________________________ 5. Concentrated solution - __________________ ______________________________________ when you add more solvent to a solution in order to decrease the overall concentration when you remove solvent from a solution in order INCREASE the overall concentration
the speed at which a solvent is able to dissolve a solute C. Rate of solution: 1. Definition: ________________________ ________________________________
Increase temperature 2. Ways to increase the speed at which the solvent dissolves the solute. a. _____________________________ Demo: b. _____________________________ Demo: c. _____________________________ Demo: Increase surface area Stir or Shake
D. How do You Describe The Amount of Solute in a Solution? 1. Definition of each: a. Unsaturated- _____________________ ________________________________ Does not have all of the solute that it could at a given temperature
solute dissolve i. if you add one more piece of _____________ to an unsaturated solution, it will _______________ into the beaker of solution.
Has all of the solute that it can at a given temperature b. Saturated - ____________________________ _____________________________________ i. if you add one more piece of _____________ to a saturated solution, it will __________________ in the beaker. solute Stay as a crystal
Has more solute than it SHOULDat a given temperature c. supersaturated - _______________________ ____________________________________ i. if you add one more piece of _____________ to a super-saturated solution, it will __________________ in the beaker. solute crystalize
The total amount of solute necessary to make a saturated solution at a GIVEN TEMPERATURE E. Solubility and Solubility Curves 1. Solubility - __________________________ ___________________________________ 2. Solubility Curve – __________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ a graph that illustrates the solubility of given solutes in certain solvents
What is the title of this graph? • What is the x-axis label? • What is the x-axis unit of measurement? • What is the y-axis label? • What is the y-axis unit of measurement? • What is the general trend expressed by this graph?
SUPERSATURATED- anything above the line SATURATED - anything on the line UNSATURATED- anything under the line
What is the temperature of a saturated solution of 36 g / 100 g of water? • What is the solubility of BaCl2 at 60 C? • If a solution has 40 g of BaCl2 dissolved in 100 g of water and it is at 70 C, how would you characterize it?
increases increases c. Common trend between temperature and heat i. as temperature __________________, solubility _________________.
Which salt is the most soluble at 70 C? • Which salt’s solubility is least affected by temperature? • Which salt’s solubility is most affected by temperature?