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What is Matter?

What is Matter?

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What is Matter?

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  1. What is Matter? • Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. • Mass- amount of material in an object • Everything has mass (even air) • Weight is due to gravity, and changes from location to location; mass is always constant.

  2. Kinetic Molecular Theory • KMT • Particles of matter are always in motion. • causes thermal energy • The kinetic energy (speed) of these particles increases as temperature increases.

  3. States of matter • Solid- matter that can not flow (definite shape) and has definite volume. • Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows). • Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow.

  4. States of Matter Definite Volume? Definite Shape? Temp. increase Com-pressible? Solid Liquid Gas

  5. B. Four States of Matter • Solids • very low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around • fixed shape • fixed volume

  6. B. Four States of Matter • Liquids • low KE - particles can move around but are still close together • variable shape • fixed volume

  7. B. Four States of Matter • Gases • high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container • variable shape • variable volume

  8. B. Four States of Matter • Plasma • very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) • gas-like, variableshape & volume • stars, fluorescentlight bulbs, CRTs

  9. Types of Matter Mixture- more than one kind of matter; has a variable composition • Pure Substance- a particular kind of matter that is uniform (all the same) and has a definite composition. They are classified as elements & compounds • Water and gold

  10. MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE Is the composition uniform? Can it be chemically broken down? Colloids Suspensions A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element

  11. Matter Flowchart • Examples: • graphite • pepper • sugar (sucrose) • paint • soda

  12. Pure Substances • Element • composed of identical (1 type) atoms • Cannot be broken down to simpler substances • EX: copper wire, aluminum foil

  13. Pure Substances • Compound • composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio • Can be broken down by chemical means • properties differ from those of individual elements • EX: table salt (NaCl), sugar (C6H12O6)

  14. Pure Substances • Law of Definite Composition • A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements. • Law of Multiple Proportions • Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds.

  15. Pure Substances • For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.

  16. Mixtures • Can be separated into at least two pure substances; variable composition.Every part keeps it’s own properties. • Heterogeneous- mixture is not uniform in composition • Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil. • Homogeneous- same composition throughout; called “solutions” • Kool-aid, chocolate milk, salt water

  17. Mixtures • Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances.

  18. Tyndall Effect Mixtures • Solution • Homogeneous • Uniform in appearance • very small particles • no Tyndall effect • particles don’t settle • 1 phase present at a time • EX: rubbing alcohol

  19. Solutions Continued • Mixed molecule by molecule • Can occur between any state of matter • gas in gas; liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid (alloys), etc.

  20. Solutions continued • Like all mixtures, they keep the properties of the components. • Some can be separated easily by physical means: rocks and marbles, iron filings and sulfur • Other methods: distillation- takes advantage of different boiling points (physical properties)

  21. Mixtures • Colloid • heterogeneous • medium-sized particles • Tyndall effect • particles don’t settle • Variable composition • 2 or more physically distinct phases may be present • EX: milk

  22. Mixtures • Suspension • heterogeneous • large particles • Tyndall effect • particles settle • Variable composition • 2 or more physically distinct phases may be present • EX: fresh-squeezed lemonade

  23. Mixtures • Examples: • mayonnaise • muddy water • fog • saltwater • Italian salad dressing

  24. Compound or Mixture Compound Mixture