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CHAPTER 6 PowerPoint Presentation

CHAPTER 6

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CHAPTER 6

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  1. CHAPTER 6 Process Selection and Facility Layout

  2. Process selection

  3. Facilities andEquipment CapacityPlanning Forecasting Layout Product andService Design ProcessSelection WorkDesign TechnologicalChange Process Selection and System Design.

  4. Process Selection • Variety How much variety in products or service will the system need to handle ? • Flexibility What degree of equipment flexibility will be needed ? • Volume What is the expected volume of output ?

  5. Process Types • Job shop • Small scale • Batch • Moderate volume • Repetitive/assembly line • High volumes of standardized goods or services • Continuous • Very high volumes of non-discrete goods

  6. High Volume Low Volume Product and Service Processes

  7. Product – Process Matrix Other issues; scheduling work-in-process inventory labor skill

  8. Important factors for process design • Product profiling • Sustainable goods and services • Lean process design • Automation

  9. Facility layout

  10. Objective of Layout Design • Facilitate attainment of product quality • Use workers and space efficiently • Avoid bottlenecks • Minimize unnecessary material handling costs • Eliminate unnecessary movement of workers or materials • Minimize production time or customer service time • Design for safety

  11. Facilities Layout Types of layout • Fixed-Position layouts • Product layouts • Process layouts • Cellular layouts • Service layouts • Combination layouts

  12. Fixed Position Layouts • Fixed Position Layout: Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed. • Nature of the product dictates this type of layout • Weight • Size • Bulk • Large construction projects

  13. Fixed Position Layouts (cont.) • Typical of projects • Equipment, workers, materials, other resources brought to the site • Highly skilled labor • Often low fixed costs • Typically high variable costs

  14. Facilities Layout Types of layout • Fixed-Position layouts • Product layouts • Process layouts • Cellular layouts • Service layouts • Combination layouts

  15. Product Layout Used for Repetitive or Continuous Processing Raw materials or customer Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 Finished item Station 1 Material and/or labor Material and/or labor Material and/or labor Material and/or labor

  16. Product Layout(cont.) Flow shop production (Product-oriented layout): seeks the best personnel and machine utilization in repetitive or continuous production.

  17. 1 2 3 4 In 5 Workers 6 Out 10 9 8 7 A U-Shaped Production Line • Ease to cross-travel of workers and vehicles • More compact • More communication between workers

  18. Advantages of Product Layout • High rate of output • Low unit cost • Labor specialization • Low material handling cost • High utilization of labor and equipment • Established routing and scheduling • Routine accounting, purchasing and inventory control

  19. Disadvantages of Product Layout • Creates dull, repetitive jobs • Poorly skilled workers may not maintain equipment or quality of output • Fairly inflexible to changes in volume • Highly susceptible to shutdowns • Needs preventive maintenance • Individual incentive plans are impractical

  20. Facilities Layout Types of layout • Fixed-Position layouts • Product layouts • Process layouts • Cellular layouts • Service layouts • Combination layouts

  21. Dept. A Dept. C Dept. E Dept. B Dept. D Dept. F Process Layout Process Layout (functional) Used for Intermittent processing Job Shop or Batch Processes

  22. Advantages of Process Layouts • Can handle a variety of processing requirements • Not particularly vulnerable to equipment failures • Equipment used is less costly • Possible to use individual incentive plans

  23. Disadvantages of Process Layouts • In-process inventory costs can be high • Challenging routing and scheduling • Equipment utilization rates are low • Material handling slow and inefficient • Complexities often reduce span of supervision • Special attention for each product or customer • Accounting and purchasing are more complicated

  24. Process-oriented layout • Design places departments with large flows of material or people together • Department areas having similar processes located in close proximity

  25. Process-oriented layout (cont.) • Steps in Developing a Process-Oriented Layout 1. Construct a “from-to matrix” station station

  26. Process-oriented layout (cont.) • Steps in Developing a Process-Oriented Layout 2.Determine space requirements for each department

  27. Process-oriented layout (cont.) • Steps in Developing a Process-Oriented Layout 3. Develop an initial schematic diagram

  28. n i=1 n j=1 Process-oriented layout (cont.) • Steps in Developing a Process-Oriented Layout Cost of Process-Oriented Layout Minimize cost = ∑∑ XijCij Where n = total number of work centers or departments i,j = individual departments Xij = number of loads moved from department i to department j Cij = cost to move a load between department i and department j

  29. Process-oriented layout (cont.) • Steps in Developing a Process-Oriented Layout 4. Determine the cost of the layout Cost of moving 1 unit between adjacent departments is 1 dollar Cost of moving 1 unit between nonadjacent departments is 2 dollar

  30. Process-oriented layout (cont.) • Possible Layout 2

  31. Process-oriented layout (cont.) • Interdepartmental Flow Graph Showing Number of Weekly Loads

  32. Facilities Layout Types of layout • Fixed-Position layouts • Product layouts • Process layouts • Cellular layouts • Service layouts • Combination layouts

  33. Cellular Layouts Benefits: • Minimal work in process • Reduced space requirements • Reduced lead time • Productivity and quality improvement • Increased flexibility Cellular manufacturing systems (work cell layout): arranges machinery and equipment to focus on production of a single product or group of related products

  34. Cellular Layouts(cont.) • Work Cells

  35. Cellular Layouts(cont.) • Work Cells

  36. Advantages and Disadvantages of Cellular Layouts • Advantages • Minimal work in process • Reduced space requirements • Reduced lead time • Productivity and quality improvement • Increased flexibility • Disadvantages • Expanded training and scheduling of workers • Increased capital investment

  37. Facilities Layout Types of layout • Fixed-Position layouts • Product layouts • Process layouts • Cellular layouts • Service layouts • Combination layouts

  38. Service Layouts • Office layouts • Retail layouts • Warehouse and storage layouts

  39. Service Layouts(cont.) • Office Layouts

  40. Office layouts

  41. Service Layouts(cont.) • Retail layouts • Design maximizes product exposure to customers • Decision variable • Store flow pattern • Allocation of (shelf) space to products

  42. Service Layouts(cont.) • Warehouse and storage layouts

  43. Facilities Layout Types of layout • Fixed-Position layouts • Product layouts • Process layouts • Cellular layouts • Service layouts • Combination layouts

  44. Line balancing

  45. Line Balancing is the process of assigning tasks to workstations in such a way that the workstations have approximately equal time requirements. Design Product Layouts: Line Balancing

  46. Line Balancing Rules Some Heuristic (intuitive) Rules: • Assign tasks in order of most following tasks. • Count the number of tasks that follow • Assign tasks in order of greatest positional weight. • Positional weight is the sum of each task’s time and the times of all following tasks.

  47. Line Balancing Rules (cont.)

  48. Cycle time is the maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit. Cycle Time

  49. Determine Maximum Output Output rate = OT CT CT = cycle time = OT D Where OT = Operating time per day D = Desired output rate

  50. Determine the Minimum Number of Workstations Required Where N = Minimum number of work station