Career Counseling and Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory Looking at the “triadic reciprocal interaction system”
Bandura’s reinforcement theory and observational learning • Individuals’ personalities come more from their learning experiences than from their genetics • Learning by observation and by doing • Acknowledges the role of behavior, thoughts and images • Triadic reciprocal interaction system – interaction of the environment, personal factors (memories, beliefs, preferences, and self-perceptions), and actual behavior
Three Components: Antecedents – refers to almost any type of condition; people respond to antecedents with behavior Behaviors – may be obvious or subtle, may have impact on others Consequences – may be obvious or subtle Example: if someone gets an A on an exam, she will be more likely to continue studying in that field than if she does poorly When an individual pairs a situation that was previously neutral with one that is positive or negative, an associative learning experience occurs Instrumental Learning Experiences (H) vs. Associative Learning Experiences (O)
Krumboltz’s Social Learning TheoryCounselor Behavior Strategies • Reinforcement • Role Models • Role-Playing • Simulation
Cognitive Strategies for Counseling • Goal Clarification • Counter a Troublesome Belief • Look for Inconsistencies between Words and Actions • Cognitive Rehearsal
Social Learning Theory Goals for Career Counseling • 1. People need to expand their capabilities and interests, and not base decisions on existing characteristics only. • 2. People need to prepare for changing work tasks, and not assume that occupations will remain stable. • 3. People need to be empowered to take action, not merely given a diagnosis.
Applying Planned Happenstance Theory to Career Counseling • 5 Skills helpful in dealing with chance career opportunities. • Curiosity • Persistence • Flexibility • Optimism • Risk Taking
Applying Planned Happenstance Theory to Career Counseling • Step 1: Normalize planned happenstance in the client’s history • Step 2: Assist clients to transform curiosity into opportunity for learning and exploration. • Step 3: Teach clients to produce desirable chance events. • Step 4: Teach clients to overcome blacks to action.