Chapter 24 An Age of Modernity Anxiety, and Imperialism, 1894 - 1914
Toward the Modern Consciousness: Developments in the Sciences • Science offers certainty • Thought science would give complete understanding of the world and accurate picture of reality • Marie Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906) • Radiation • Atoms • Max Planck (1858-1947) • Energy radiated discontinuously • Albert Einstein (1879-1955) • Theory of relativity • Four dimensional space-time continuum • Energy of the atom
Toward a New Understanding of the Irrational • Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) • Glorifies the irrational (raw emotions, passions, primal instincts). Claimed that Western Civilization had been corrupted by TWO things: • Democracy which allowed for the voices of mentally feeble masses to dictate a social norm of mediocrity and false values as to achieve some sense of universal security and rational. • Christianity which caused the “slave morality” as people are lead like sheep as they looked towards some contrived notion of an afterlife. This was so that people would control their passions and instincts. • Both of these crush the human will. The answer was simple. First, people must recognize that “God is dead.” Man created him long ago, European society killed him, and thus no longer the need to believe or follow religious institutions.
Nietzsche continued • Second, in his work Beyond Good and Evil, he spoke of a “Urberman” (superman)who was a culture creative spirit that would save mankind from the chains of rationality. • He has the “will to power,” (he can draw on raw passion, be driven by primal instincts, has a sense of pride and assertiveness, etc.) His genius lifts him above any sense of common utility of mankind. This superman creates his own values for himself and mankind will reap the benefits from it. He can be a statesman, artist, philosopher, etc. • These were men like Alexander the Great, Caesar, Leonardo da Vinci, Mozart, Beethoven, etc.
Sigmund Freud & Irrationalism • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The father of Psychoanalysis • The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900 • Dreams are essentially a way for the unconscious mind to deal with unsettling conscious events—they get repressed into the unconscious. Dreams can be understood in terms of their symbolism to issues we are struggling with. If you are unable to do this, then you will experience severe anxiety and possibly mental illness. Naturally, Freud would suggest psychoanalysis to bring those issues to the surface, so you could deal with them. He used hypnosis and regression to get you talking. Once these issues were brought to light—resolution.
Freud continued • The Ego and the Id 1923 • According to Freud, your head is a battleground for conflicting forces. • The id (amygdala) is the center of unconscious drives (irrational thought, aggression, emotions, lust, love, etc.) Pleasure center. • The ego (frontal cortex) is the brains CEO of reason. Reality center. It mediates between the forces of id and superego. • The superego is the external source of moral values super imposed on people by society, religion, school, and parents. • Current studies show fluctuations in hormones in teen boys (testosterone) and teen girls (estrogen) impact the…..
Freud concluded • Conflicts with parents • Boys experience the Oedipus Complex and girls the Electra Complex. • Essentially, young men are often attached to their moms as their female figure. As he enters puberty, the female becomes a figure of sexual desire, thus he pulls away from his mother as she can’t be that figure. To resolve this issue, he seeks a out girlfriend to become the figure of his sexual desires. In addition, he has conflict with his father as he asserts his maleness. The young woman does the same with her father figure and has conflict with the mother. • According to Feud, if we are unable to detach form the one parent and have some conflict with the other we will repress our desires and experience inner turmoil. Furthermore, we wont develop “normal” relationships with opposite sex.
The Impact of Darwinism: Social Darwinism and Racism • Social Darwinism Darwin’s ideas applied to societal order. Both “survival of the fittest” and Lamarck’s “acquired traits.” Societies are organisms that evolve. • Radical Applications • Class and Gender discrimination • Herbert Spencer (American) “Individuals who are fit will compete in society will live and those who are not will die—that is as it should be.” • Nationalism • Heinrich von Treitschke (German) “The stronger nation must conquer the weaker.” • Friedrich von Bernhardi (German) “War is the father of all things.” • Racism • Houston Stewart Chamberlain (English) “Aryan race is original founder of Western Civilization.” • Rudyard Kipling (English) “White Man’s Burden” (poem)
The Attack on Christianity • Political movements of the late 19th century hostile to Christian churches • Controls over church courts, religious orders, and appointments • Ernst Renan • Life of Jesus looked at not as the son of God, but a human being with values for life. • Catholic Church • Pope Pius IX • Syllabus of Errors 1907in which condemned modernism---nationalism, socialism, liberalism, religious toleration, and freedoms of speech and press.
Culture of Modernity: Literature • Émile Zola (1840-1902) Rougon-Macquart • Naturalism (Post-Realism) but pessimistic about change. Characters caught in grip of forces beyond their control environment, addictions, heredity. (influenced by Darwin). • Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) War and Peace • Vivid landscape descriptions and each character is analyzed in depth. Although he viewed history rather fatalistically, enduring human values of love and trust overcome all odds. • Symbolists • Poets such as W. B. Yeats, Rainer Maria Rilke, and Arthur Rimbaud • Objective knowledge of the world was impossible • Art should function for its own sake
Modernism in the Arts • Impressionism • Paint what you observe and feel as not to lose the first impression (objective realism) • Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) • Claud Monet (1840-1926) • Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) • Post-Impressionism • Light and color with structure and form (subjective realism) • Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) • Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) • Impact of photography on art • Paint forms as you think of them not as you see them • Cubism: Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) • Abstract Expressionism: Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) • Expressionism in music (nationalistic spirit) • Edvard Grieg • Claude Debussy • Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) • Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929)
Politics: New Directions and New Uncertainties • The Movement for Women’s Rights: Demands of Women (suffragists) • Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929) • Moderates. Letters and petitions to Parliament • Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) • Radical. Women’s Social and Political Union, Focused on publicity. Egging members of Parliament, smashing windows, burning rail cars, cutting telephone lines, hunger strikes, etc. • Emily Davison • Sacrifice for the cause (ran out in front of the King’s horse and was trampled to death). • Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) • Peace movement which protested the growing arms race in Europe. • Lay Down Your Arms (Best Seller) • Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905
Jews within the European Nation-State • Anti-Semitism • Actions against Jews • Many emigrate • Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) • The Jewish State, 1896 • Zionism
The Transformation of Liberalism: Great Britain • Working class demands • Caused Liberals to move away from ideals • Trade Unions • Advocate “collective ownership” and other controls • Fabian Socialists • Neither Unions nor Fabian Socialists are Marxist • Britain’s Labour Party • David Lloyd George (1863-1945) • Abandons laissez-faire • Backs social reform measures • National Insurance Act, 1911 • Beginnings of the welfare state
Transformation of Liberalism: Italy and France • Italy • Giovanni Giolitti • France • Dreyfus affair • Third Republic • Anti-republican
Growing Tensions in Germany • William II (1888-1918) • Military and industrial power • Conflict of tradition and modernization • Strong nationalists • Austria-Hungary • Universal male suffrage in 1907 • Social Democrats • Emperor Francis Joseph • Count Istva`n Tisza
Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia • By 1900 the fourth largest producer of steel • Development of working class • Development of socialist parties • Marxist Social Democratic Party, Minsk, 1898 • Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905 • General strike, October 1905 • Nicholas II granted civil liberties and a legislative body, Duma • Curtailment of power of the Duma, 1907
The New Imperialism • Causes of the New Imperialism • Political competition among European nations (Nationalism abroad) • Economics (raw materials for 2nd I.R.) • Social Darwinism and racism “White Man’s Burden” • Religious humanitarianism? (Christianize the heathens) • The Creation of Empires • Scramble for Africa • Cape Colony • Afrikaners • Great Trek, 1835 • Region between Orange Free State and the Vaal River, (Transvaal) • Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) • Diamond and gold companies • Takes the Transvaal • Attempts to overthrow the neighboring Boer Government • Boer War, 1899-1902 • Union of South Africa, 1910
Other Instances of Imperialism • Portuguese • Mozambique • Angola • French • Algeria, 1830 • West Africa and Tunis • British in Egypt • Leopold II, 1865-1909 • International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa, 1876 • Congo • French reaction is to move into territory north of the Congo River • Germany • South West Africa; Cameroons; Togoland; East Africa
Imperialism in Asia • James Cook to Australia, 1768-1771 • British East India Company • Empress of India bestowed on Queen Victoria, 1876 • Russian expansion • Siberia • Reach Pacific coast, 1637 • Press south into the crumbling Ottoman Empire • Persia and Afghanistan • Korea and Manchuria • British acquisition of Hong Kong • Japan • Matthew Perry opens Japan, 1853-1854 • Southeast Asia • British & French control • Pacific Islands • US and the Spanish-American War
Responses to Imperialism • Africa • New class of educated African leaders • Resentment of foreigners • Middle-class Africans • Intellectual hatred of colonial rule • Political parties and movements • China • Boxer Rebellion, 1900-1901, Society of Harmonious Fists • Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) • Fall of the Manchu dynasty, 1912, Republic of China
Japan and India • Japan • Samurai • Meiji Mutsuhito, 1867-1912 • Meiji Era (Enlightened Government) • Westernization of military and industry • India • British control results in peace and honest government • Extreme poverty • Indian National Congress, 1883
International Rivalry and the Coming of War • New Alliances • Triple Alliance, 1882 – Germany, Austria, Italy • Reinsurance Treaty between Russia and Germany, 1887 • Dismissal of Bismarck, 1890 • New Directions and New Crises • Emperor William II and a “place in the sun” • Military alliance of France and Russia, 1894 • Triple Entente, 1907 – Britain, France, Russia • Triple Alliance, 1907 – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy