Download
chapter 24 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 24 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 24

134 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 24

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 24 Aftermath: The Reconstruction of the Union 1865–1877

  2. The Reconstruction Crisis • The South after the war • Many cities flattened • Railroad destroyed • Commercial ties broken • Labor force gone • Reconstruction • Political process of restoring eleven rebel states to Union

  3. Reconstruction Crisis (cont.’d) • Lincoln versus Congress • Lincoln makes it easy for South to return • Radical Republicans want control • Radical Republicans pass Wade–Davis bill • Lincoln vetoes bill • He sought north-south reconciliation • Andrew Johnson • Inflexible in positions • Little education, much experience • Began with Radicals’ goodwill • Loses it over control of Reconstruction

  4. Reconstruction Crisis (cont.’d) • Johnson on Reconstruction • Favors presidential control • Says Southern states never left Union • Constitutionally impossible to do so • Johnson’s position legally sound • North not ready to easily accept the South back • North does not want to see Confederates in office

  5. Reconstruction Crisis (cont.’d) • Radical position on Reconstruction • State suicide • Conquered territories • South in state of chaos • Only Congress can re-admit states • Radicals and Johnson • Refuse to seat Southern Congressmen • Some believe in racial equality • Some want freedmen to get land • Win support of moderate Republicans

  6. 1866: The Critical Year • Southern blacks • “Freedmen” • Typically leave plantations • No means of support • Suffer from poverty • Freedmen’s Bureau • Congress creates organization • General O.O. Howard leads • Provides relief for freedmen and whites • Congress renews; Johnson vetoes • Johnson has constitutional grounds • Mobs attack freedmen in several southern cities

  7. 1866: The Critical Year(cont.’d) • Black Codes • South expects freedmen to provide labor • Establish codes to make freedmen second-class citizens • Greatly limits rights of freedmen • Codes anger North • Fourteenth Amendment • Response to Black Codes • Bans some Confederates from office • Guarantees all citizens equal treatment • Johnson campaigns against ratification

  8. 1866: The Critical Year(cont.’d) • Radical triumph • Johnson organizes new party • Johnson calls for reconciliation • Johnson antagonizes voters • Radicals win control of Congress

  9. Radical Reconstruction • Radical program passes Congress, 1867 • Divides South into five military districts • Provides for military occupation • New voters elect conventions • States must ratify Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments • Readmission • All but four states readmitted by 1868 • Radicals attempt supremacy over other branches • Supreme Court refuses Reconstruction cases • Congress passes Tenure of Office Act

  10. Map of Radical Reconstruction

  11. Radical Reconstruction (cont.’d) • Impeachment of Andrew Johnson • Johnson repeatedly vetoes Reconstruction bills • Johnson urges South not to cooperate • Johnson defies Tenure of Office Act • House of Representatives impeaches Johnson • Senate fails to convict by one vote • Moderates refuse to convict • Moderates dislike Johnson’s potential successor • 1868 election year • The Fifteenth Amendment • Republican Ulysses S. Grant wins • Popular vote very close • Grant wins due to black vote in South • Radicals endorse Fifteenth Amendment

  12. Radical Reconstruction (cont.’d) • Grant, Race and the South • His racial views not clear • Relied on Roscoe Conkling who backed equality • Corruption • Scalawags, Carpetbaggers • Corrupt government • In perspective • Large expenditures needed to rebuild South • Corruption in South no worse than elsewhere • Carpetbaggers bring needed revenue to South • Scalawags often respectable whites • Democrats later stole money

  13. Radical Reconstruction (cont.’d) • Blacks in Government • Most well-educated, refined • Never in control of any Southern state • No black governors • Blacks did participate in government • Ku Klux Klan and the Redeemers • Democrats called themselves Redeemers • Nathan Bedford Forrest starts Klan • Uses terrorism to stop black political activity • Ku Klux Acts make Klan activity illegal • Klan effectively limits black participation

  14. Grant’s Troubled Administration • President Ulysses S. Grant • Ill suited to presidency • Receives numerous gifts • Failed to distance himself from corruption • Jim Fisk and Jay Gould • Black Friday • Speculators attempt to corner nation’s gold supply • Influences Grant not to sell government’s gold • Grant finally realizes mistake; sells gold • Price of gold collapses

  15. Grant’s Troubled Administration (cont.’d) • Liberal Republicans break with Grant • Upset over corruption • Liberals give up on Radical goals • Liberals prefer stability in South • Election of 1872 • Grant vs. Horace Greeley • Few Republicans willing to join with Democrats • Grant victorious

  16. The Twilight of Reconstruction • Civil Rights Act of 1875 • Last attempt to enforce equal rights for 80 years • Northerners lose interest in Civil War goals • Only South Carolina, Louisiana, Florida still under Reconstruction • 1876 election • Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Samuel J. Tilden • Tilden wins most popular votes • South Carolina, Louisiana, Florida: two sets of returns • No one knows who the real winner is • Congress appoints special commission • The Compromise of 1877 • Commission names Hayes President • In return, Republicans end Reconstruction

  17. Discussion Questions • Examine the struggle over Reconstruction between Congress and the Presidency. How did it conclude? Was this struggle beneficial to the South? • Why was Andrew Johnson impeached? Was he guilty of any wrong-doing? What was the result of his impeachment? • When did the Ku Klux Klan come into existence? Is its appearance connected with Radical Reconstruction? • Examine the administration of Ulysses Grant. Why was his presidency riddled with scandal and corruption? What were his notable accomplishments?