George Washington Carver High School Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS) Response to Intervention (RTI) Darrell Hudson, Principal Chari Fikes, PBIS Coach
Significance BL R B R B R B Reading and Behavior Instruction Reading Instruction Behavior Instruction The Need for Academic & Behavioral Integration Source: Shepard Kellam, Ph.D, Senior Research Fellow, American Institutes for Research (AIR)
Good teaching is good teaching and there are NO boundaries on when, where, or for what or whom it will occur • Teaching academics without attention to behavior IS NOT evidence based practice • Teaching behavior without attention to academics is unsound practice • In efforts to improve achievement, they cannot be separated Algozzine, 2008
THE BOTTOM LINE Are we matching instruction to student need?
Mental Health Social Work Wrap Around Model: Mrazek & Haggerty (1994) Committee on prevention of mental disorders Mental Health Psychology: Caplan,G. (1964) Principles of preventative psychology PBIS: Sugai & Horner. (2002), Reading Tiered Instruction: Torgesen, J. K. (2002) Public Health: 1957 Commission on Chronic Illness US Department of Education RtI Summit December 2007 History of the Triangle
What is RtI? • Systematically addressing academic and behavior skills through the practice of providing high quality instruction and intervention matched to student need to create learning environments that are effective, efficient, relevant, and durable • Every ED Initiative • Comprehensive way to address student needs
RtI is NOT • Not new • Not a specific curriculum or program • Not intended for a subgroup of students only • Not a Special Education thing • Not a just about reading • Not something we can just add to the teachers’ list of duties • Not something an individual can do on their own
Where did this whole RtI thing come from anyway? A convergence of • Research • Policy • Practice
Where did this whole RtI thing come from anyway? • RtI comes from research in: • Applied Behavior Analysis • Data Based Program Modification • PBIS • Reading Research—Big 5 • Curriculum Based Measurement • Resistance to Intervention (Gresham, 1991) • IQ/Achievement Discrepancy is “harmful” (Fletcher, et al, 2004) RESEARCH
Where did this whole RtI thing come from anyway? • President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2001) • Learning Disabilities Summit (2001) • No Child Left Behind (2002) • RtI Symposium (2003) • Reauthorization of IDEA (2004) POLICY
Where did this whole RtI thing come from anyway? • Minnesota (1989) Dual Discrepancy for identifying learning disabilities • Pennsylvania (1990) statewide Instructional Support Teams • Iowa (1991) Problem Solving for special education eligibility; piloted non-categorical system • Ohio (1993) Problem Solving for applying interventions in academics and behavior PRACTICE
Probability Equation p B A C School/Teacher Control: curriculum, expectations, routines, examples, physical arrangements, engagement, prompts, time, feedback Student Characteristics:skills, history, Family/culture, functional desires, Desired State: measureable outcomes (skills, behaviors)
History of the Triangle Public Health: 1957 Commission on Chronic Illness Mental Health Psychology: Caplan,G. (1964) Principles of preventative psychology Mental Health Social Work Wrap Around Model: Mrazek & Haggerty (1994) Committee on prevention of mental disorders School and District Behavioral Support: Walker,et al. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school children and youth. School wide positive behavior support: Sugai & Horner. (2002) The evolution of discipline practices: school wide positive behavior supports
“To often, students of all ages come to class struggling with life challenges that can interfere with instruction, impeded achievement, and undermine school climate. Preventing or remedying such barriers is critical to school success.” - -National Association of School Psychologists, August 2008
Make a list of potential factors • RISK FACTORS • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • PROTECTIVE FACTORS • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5
Why focus on supporting positive behavior? • 17 % of teachers lost four or more hours of teaching time per week • 19 % of teachers said they lost two or three hours • In urban elementary schools, 21 % said they lost four or more hours per week. • In urban secondary schools, 24% said they lost four or more hours per week. • Source American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
Innovation Process Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior SYSTEMS DATA PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
What are the critical steps for setting up a school-wide system of behavior? • Establish a school wide leadership or behavior support team. • Secure administrator agreement of active support and participation. • Secure 80% of staff for active support. • Conduct a self assessment of the current school-wide discipline system. • Create an action plan from data based decision making. • Collect data on a regular basis to evaluate the effectiveness of the PBS efforts.
GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Team Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
PBIS Makes Sense For “Real World” Contexts Gallup Poll…..
1 million workers, 80,000 managers, 400 companies Predictable work environments are places where employees(Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup) 1. Know what is expected 2. Have materials & equipment to do job correctly 3. Receive recognition each week for good work. 4. Have supervisor who cares, & pays attention 5. Receive encouragement to contribute & improve 6. Can identify person at work who is “best friend.” 7. Feel mission of organization makes them feel like their jobs are important 8. See people around them committed to doing good job 9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better) 10. Have opportunity to do their job well.
1 million workers, 80,000 managers, 400 companies Predictable work environments are places where employees(Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup) educators, students, family members, etc. 1. Know what is expected 2. Have curriculum & instruction to do job correctly 3. Receive recognition for demonstrating expectations. 4. Have teacher/parent/principal who cares, & pays attention 5. Receive encouragement to contribute & improve 6. Can identify someone who they can relate to.” 7. Feel mission of classroom/school makes them feel like their efforts are important 8. See students/teachers/principals around them committed to doing good job 9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better) 10. Have opportunity to do their learning/teaching well.
School District, School Responsibility • “shall develop and implement a board approved comprehensive district plan for school discipline. The plan shall include: written standards for student behavior expectations; effective instructional practices for teaching student expectations; systematic methods for reinforcement of expected behavior and uniform methods for correction of student behavior; uniform methods for annual evaluation of efficiency and effectiveness; ongoing staff development…”
Tier 1 Tier 1: Focuses on schoolwide PBIS
Continuity of Services in PBIS All/School Wide Some/Targeted Few/High Risk Scope of Service Intensity of Service
Decide What Socially Acceptable Behavior Is In Your School/Program… Step 1: Establish Expectations
Establish Expectations • Define what is needed for students and staff to be successful socially • Develop looks and sounds like matrix with all common (non classroom settings) well defined • Consensus must be gained prior to implementation
Characteristics of Good Proactive Rules • No more than 5 • Keep it simple • Positively stated • Be specific • Observable, Measurable • Publicly Post in a prominent place • Tie rules to consequences • If you do….. If you don’t…. • Include a compliance rule • Ex: Follow directions first time given From: The Tough Kid Book, Rhode, Jenson, Reavis (1992)
Team Time: 10 minutes • What are we currently doing? • What changes need to be made? • What steps do we need to take to insure implementation and evaluation?
Treat Social Behavior As Skills---That Can Be Taught Step 2: Explicitly Teach Expectations
Why Teach Expectations? Why Not Just Tell Them the Rules? • Cannot assume students know how to apply rules in each setting. Need to teach behaviors in context! • What does “Be Respectful” look like in the lunchroom? • What does “Be Responsible, Be Resourceful” look like for assemblies? • Teaching allows students to practice appropriate behavior and builds fluency • Allows students to see non-examples of expectation • Know when consequences will be applied • Decreases student response “I didn’t know……”
Why Teach Expectations? Why Not Just Tell Them the Rules? “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we……..... ……….teach? ………punish?” “Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” John Herner (NASDE President ) Counterpoint (1998, p.2)
DEFINE Simply ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MODEL PRACTICE In Setting Teaching Academics & Behaviors
Tips for Explicit Instruction • Teach in the environment where behavior is required • Plan for booster sessions • At least each term, natural breaks • Ensure consistency between instructors • Write down the plan for future reference and adjustment
You get what you pay attention to…. STEP 3: Systematic Reinforcement for Demonstration of Expectations
Systematic Reinforcement • Make doing things the right way more efficient to getting needs met than doing thing the wrong way • Everyone in the school system (staff, students, families) need positive reinforcement • School based team needs reinforcement to maintain positive approach
Components of School-wide Reinforcement • Components often overlooked • Positive parent contact • Random reinforcement strategies • Positive public posting • Continuous behavioral feedback for students and staff • Data on positive reinforcement • Other enhancements
Error Correction STEP 4: Systematic Correction of Behavioral Errors
Error Correction • System Approach • Getting everyone on the same page • Data Sources • What do we need to track and how are we going to track it? • Anticipate and Prevent Disciplinary Problems. • Problem areas, supervision, transitions, etc. • Decide on major and minor infractions
Variables that affect compliance • Precision requests: when you want a student to do something, tell them. • Distance: 3 to 5 feet is the best for compliance • Eye contact • No more than 2 requests • Soft but firm voice • Time: 3 to 5 seconds no interaction • More start than stop • Nonemotional • Descriptive requests • REINFORCE COMPLIANCE
Compliance and Coercion • The central behavior for difficult students in non-compliance: • Not following directions within reasonable amounts of time. • Most arguing, fighting, and rule breaking is behavior to avoid requests or tasks.
Starting your action plan… What short term outcomes do you want? What long term outcomes do you want? What data do you have and need? What practices do you want to implement? What do you want more and what do you want less (from adults and students)?
Information obtained from: www.updc.org/abc www.pbis.org