Immunizations Denice Gardner, MSN, NNP-BC
Objectives • Discuss immunizations and their effects on the newborn
Immunity • Security against a particular disease or foreign microorganism as a result of development of protective antibodies • Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralize or destroy specific toxins • Antibodies are disease-specific
Immunity • Two Types of Immunity • Active Immunity • Occurs from exposure to the disease by exposure during infection or by vaccination • Passive Immunity • Occurs when a person is given the antibodies to a disease rather than by producing the antibodies themselves (ex. newborn baby)
Vaccines • Live/Attenuated • Pathogen is weakened or altered so that it doesn’t cause the illness • Killed/Inactivated • Usually use the term inactivated • Pathogen is treated so that the pathogen is kept intact, but its ability to replicate is destroyed, so that the body can still recognize it
Vaccination Schedule • Hepatitis: birth, 1-2 months, & 6-18 months • DTaP: 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, & 4-6 years • Polio: 2 months, 4 months, 6-18 months, & 4-6 years • Hib: 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, & 12-15 months • Pneumococcal: 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, & 12-15 months • Rotavirus: 2 months, 4 months, & 6 months depending on manufacturer
Vaccination Schedule • Preterm infants may receive most vaccinations per routine recommended schedule • Exception: Hepatitis B vaccine may be delayed until 1 month of age
Hepatitis B Vaccine • Screening of all pregnant women is MANDATORY! • Vaccine Schedule • HBsAg-negative mother • routine schedule • HBsAg-positive mother • HBIG shortly after birth • Hepatitis B Vaccine within 12 hours of age
Hepatitis B Vaccine • Unknown Maternal HBsAg status • first Hepatitis B Vaccine soon after birth • Following doses depend upon results of maternal testing • If results are positive, HBIG should be given within 1 week of birth • Vaccination of preterm infant is dependent upon birth weight & duration of time in which maternal lab results are obtained
Precautions • Vaccines may be delayed if the child on the scheduled appointment date. • Some children should NOT get certain vaccines if they have had a reaction to a previous vaccine or has any life-threatening allergy.
Medical Deferments for Vaccinations • DTaP • Brain or nervous system disease within 7 days of receiving vaccine • Non-stop crying for ≥3 hours • Seizure • Temp >105ºF • Polio • Allergy to neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B
Medical Deferments for Vaccinations • Hepatitis B Vaccine • Allergy to yeast • Rotavirus • Weakened immune system • Ongoing digestive problems • Recent transfusion of blood or blood products • History of intussusception
Common Vaccine reactions • Redness or swelling at site • Fussiness • Sleepiness • Poor feeding • Vomiting
misconceptions • Autism or other developmental concerns as a result of immunizations • SIDS • Seizures • Prematurity • Breast feeding • Previous reaction to immunizations in family members • Cost
References • www.cdc.gov • Siegfried, D.R. (2002). Anatomy & Physiology for Dummies. Wiley Publishing Inc: New York.