Immunizations Donna Hills APN EdD Ball & Bindler
National Goals • Reducing number of preventable diseases is a major national goal in Healthy People 2010 • Eliminate: rubella, cong. rubella synd., diptheria, Haemophilus influenza b, measles, mumps, polio and tetanus. • Reduce: pertussis, hepatitis b, varicella, food-borne pathogens, and HIV infection.
Purpose of a Vaccine to stimulate active immunity by provoking a response from the person’s immune system requires B cells (and T cells) to spring into action create a memory within the immune system exposure to active disease will stimulate a specific immune response
Vulnerability of Newborns and Infants • Immune systems not fully mature • Passive acquired immunity from maternal antibodies provides limited and short-term protection • Disease protection thru immuniz is incomplete. • Poor hygiene behaviors in young children.
Characteristics of a Vaccine inactivated (killed) antigen: Flu shot, Hep. A live attenuated (weakened) antigen: MMR, Varicella synthetic (laboratory synthesized) microbial materials:Toxoids DTaP conjugate vaccines use outer- coats of the bacteria: Hib, PCV recombinant vaccines use the virus genetic material: Hep B
Side Effects: Vaccine specific. low grade fever soreness at site body aches x 24 hrs minor side effects are preferable to the disease. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NIH, 1998).
True Contraindications to all Vaccines Serious allergic reaction, ie.anaphylaxis after a previous vaccine dose Serious allergic reaction, ie. anaphylaxis to a vaccine component Moderate to severe illness
Specific Contraindications for Individual Vaccines IPV: severe allergic reaction to neomycin, streptomycin or polymyxin B. DTaP: seizure, encephalopathy, fever >105o with previous DTaP Varicella & MMR: severe allergic reaction to gelatin, neomycin, pregnant women, immunosuppressed individuals, treated with steroids for >2wks., have cancer or under going cancer treatment.
HIB: children less than 6 wks of age. Hep.B: severe allergic reaction to Baker;s yeast (used in bread). Specific Contraindications (cont.)
High fever Behavior changes Seizures Allergic reaction:diffic. Breathing, weakness, hoarseness, wheezing, rapid heart rate, hives, dizziness, paleness, or mucus membrane swelling. Reported by parent and/or provider using a Vaers form from the CDC. Adverse Reactions
Misconceptions about Vaccines Diseases disappeared before vaccines were introduced Most people who get sick have been vaccinated Many vaccines cause serious adverse events Vaccines cause illness and deaths. Vaccine-preventable diseases are rare Multiple vaccinations overload the immune sx.
Misconceptions about Vaccines cont. Children with a mild illness can’t be immunized Concurrent multiple vaccinations shouldn’t be given
Vaccine Truths Vaccines are one of the most important public health achievements Public concern about vaccines is pervasive Fear of vaccines can lead to public harm Vaccines are not 100% safe Parents want what is best for their children The public has little understanding of the vaccine development process
Risk perception is critical There are anti-vaccine champions Questions remain The decision not to vaccinate is an active decision to accept the risk of the disease. (Marshall, G. 2003). Vaccine Truths continued
Thimerisol and Autism Ethylmercury: mercury in sufficient doses is neurotoxic, and more toxic to the immature brain. Studies have failed to conclude a causative relationship between thimerisol and autism previously used as a preservative in the HIB, HepB, DTaP.
Removed as of July 1999 as prudent action to reduce mercury exposure to infants;not because a causal relationship was determined. Still remains in the Influenza A vaccine and meningococcal, but greatest concern is exposure in infancy. Thimerisol and Autism (cont.)
MMR and Autism Likewise, results of three large studies in Britain and the U.S. have failed to find a causal relationship between the MMR vaccine and Autism. MMR has never contained thimerisol Signs of Autism often surface during the second year of life, when the MMR is given.
Vaccine Schedule • Ball & Bindler top of p. 602 • CDC website: www.CDC.gov • Click on most current immuniz sched. Available. • Print for easy reference for clinical worksheets. • Follow yellow ranges for recommended ages