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Period 1

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Period 1

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  1. Period 1 Do Now 1. How is life distributed in aquatic ecosystems? List the 3 zones. 2. List 2 factors that affect the distribution. Page 4 TV/Smart board Dawson, Isaiah Coover, Tessa Alexander Coriyon Payne, Zayla Frison, Jonathan Felton, Joshua Harrison, Alicia Lesesne, Jaylah Davis, Jarius Jones, Isaiah Davis, Tyshion Irwin, Mark Johnson, Charity Hathorn, Lefrazie Bennett, Jeremiah Vergara, Kristine Jackson, Deric Love, Alyonna Has, Marina Vinson, John Sumpter, Ja'ques Miller, Zyriana 10 minutes Kedixa, Torres

  2. Period 3 • Do Now • How is life distributed in aquatic ecosystems? List the 3 zones. • List 2 factors that affect the distribution. • Page 4 TV/Smart board Miller, Matthew Brown, Zaria Gonzalez, Dulce Andrews, Artasi Cook, Taleah Cash, Haily Labranch, Nikkita Liu, Binying Williams, Jasmine Robinson, Milasantia Haines, Chinae Hills, Desire Gleason, Nikki Sheffield, Caleb Davis, Carl Collins, Jokwon Mack, Charity Sellers, De'andr Johnson, Deaviona Moore, Jamie Hillyard, Kayla Collingwood, Dylan Turner, Destiny Webber, Takarae Jackson, Jalil Johnson, Darren 10 minutes King, Lewis

  3. Period 4 Do Now 1.How is life distributed in aquatic ecosystems? List the 3 zones. 2. List 2 factors that affect the distribution. Page 4 TV/Smart board Nelson, Imonn Campbell, Alontae Ford, Precious Evans, Alexis Matthews, Lakeiorioa Robinson, Elijah Millikin, Gwendolyn Hopkins, Zamar Hobbs-Haynes, Milan Moon, Damon Shareef, Jamal Emonie Powell Shepard, Gaven Rovig, Elizabeth Reed, Solomon Grice, Marcus Hamilton, Takera Champagne,Victoria Simmons, Shaunice Watson, Veldas Stammers, Christopher Walton, Jamar 10 minutes

  4. Class rules • Come into the classroom ready to work. • No eating or drinking in the classroom after breakfast. • No profanity. • Keep hands, feet and words to yourself. • No sleeping or heads on the desks. • Attention signal-when I clap  You clap

  5. C – 2-3 • H - raised hand to ask question • A – Macromolecules • M - at desks • P - everyone • S - Completed foldable

  6. "THE BIG 4"MACROMOLECULES • SC.912.L.18.1 - Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four categories of biological macromolecules. (Moderate) • Learning Objectives: • Compare and contrast the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four categories of macromolecules. • Identify examples of the four categories of macromolecules. • Essential Question - How do the different macromolecules meet our needs?

  7. Saltine Cracker Demonstration • Place a piece of a saltine cracker on your tongue • Allow the cracker to completely dissolve while making mental observations of how it taste. Write down in your notebook page 6, which of the 5 senses you are using and the observations that are being made.

  8. Macromolecules Foldable TAB C 1. Label the tab LIPID 2. Sketch and label a TRIGLYCERIDE TAB D 1. Label the tab NUCLEIC ACID 2. Sketch and color a NUCLEOTIDE BACK SIDE OF TABS; TAB A 1. Give 4 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS 2. List 2 EXAMPLES OF PROTEINS • Fold and cut a piece of paper as shown above to make 4 tabs. • FRONT SIDE OF TABS: • Tab A • 1. Label the tab PROTEIN • 2. Sketch and color an AMINO ACID • TAB B • 1. Label the tab CARBOHYDRATE • 2. Sketch and color a molecule of GLUCOSE

  9. What is a MACROMOLECULE A very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many smaller structural units linked together.

  10. MACROMOLECULES OF LIFE • Found in all living things • Building blocks of all cells • Made up of the atoms: Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur • There are 4 • Carbohydrates  C, H, & O • Lipids  C, H, & O • Proteins  C, H, O, N, & S • Nucleic Acids  C, H, O, N, & P

  11. Glucose Carbohydrates • Basic units: monomer - • Monosaccharides • Function: Provide immediate or short-term energy and structural support • Examples -breads, cereals, vegetables, fruits, seeds, glucose, starches

  12. Lipids/Fats • Basic units:Monomer- glycerol & fatty acids • Functions:provides stored or long-term energy & structure, cushions the body, and prevents heat loss • Found in butter, margarine, candy • made of fatty acid molecules that consist two distinct regions: • a long hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain • a hydrophilic head

  13. contain single carbon-to-carbon bonds has lots of hydrogen solid at room temperature (beef, pork, chicken, dairy) found in animal products Reduce Intake!  can clog blood vessels Saturated Fats

  14. Unsaturated Fats • contain double or triple carbon-to-carbon bonds & fewer hydrogen atoms • Liquid at room temperature (oils, nuts, & seeds) • found in plant products • Better Intake!

  15. Molecular structures of Fats Saturated Fat Unsaturated Fat

  16. Period 1 Do Now Look at water notes for final water quiz TV/Smart board Dawson, Isaiah Coover, Tessa Alexander Coriyon Payne, Zayla Frison, Jonathan Felton, Joshua Harrison, Alicia Lesesne, Jaylah Davis, Jarius Jones, Isaiah Davis, Tyshion Irwin, Mark Johnson, Charity Hathorn, Lefrazie Bennett, Jeremiah Vergara, Kristine Jackson, Deric Love, Alyonna Has, Marina Vinson, John Sumpter, Ja'ques Miller, Zyriana 10 minutes Kedixa, Torres

  17. Period 3 Do Now Look at your water notes for final water quiz TV/Smart board Miller, Matthew Brown, Zaria Gonzalez, Dulce Andrews, Artasi Cook, Taleah Cash, Haily Labranch, Nikkita Liu, Binying Williams, Jasmine Robinson, Milasantia Haines, Chinae Hills, Desire Gleason, Nikki Sheffield, Caleb Davis, Carl Collins, Jokwon Mack, Charity Sellers, De'andr Johnson, Deaviona Moore, Jamie Hillyard, Kayla Collingwood, Dylan Turner, Destiny Webber, Takarae Jackson, Jalil Johnson, Darren 10 minutes King, Lewis

  18. Period 4 Do Now Get a computer, log on, go into the blended learning folder and click on Penda TV/Smart board Nelson, Imonn Campbell, Alontae Ford, Precious Evans, Alexis Matthews, Lakeiorioa Robinson, Elijah Millikin, Gwendolyn Hopkins, Zamar Hobbs-Haynes, Milan Moon, Damon Shareef, Jamal Emonie Powell Shepard, Gaven Rovig, Elizabeth Reed, Solomon Grice, Marcus Hamilton, Takera Champagne,Victoria Simmons, Shaunice Watson, Veldas Stammers, Christopher Walton, Jamar 10 minutes

  19. Class rules • Come into the classroom ready to work. • No eating or drinking in the classroom after breakfast. • No profanity. • Keep hands, feet and words to yourself. • No sleeping or heads on the desks. • Attention signal-when I clap  You clap

  20. C – 2-3 • H - raised hand to ask question • A – Macromolecules • M - at desks • P - everyone • S - Completed foldable

  21. "THE BIG 4"MACROMOLECULES • SC.912.L.18.1 - Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four categories of biological macromolecules. (Moderate) • Learning Objectives: • Compare and contrast the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four categories of macromolecules. • Identify examples of the four categories of macromolecules. • Essential Question - How do the different macromolecules meet our needs?

  22. Nucleic Acids • Atoms: C, H, O, N, P • Basic units: nucleotides composed of  • Sugar • Phosphate group • Base: cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine, uracil • There are two types: • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) • RNA (ribonucleic acid) • Function: DNA directs & controls all activities of all cells in an organism – RNA helps; stores & transmits genetic information

  23. James Watson and Francis Crick with DNA Model in 1953. DNA Structure discovery

  24. DNA -Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is the hereditary material passed on from parents to offspring Structure: double-stranded • Phosphate group • Sugar  deoxyribose • Bases  Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Thymine

  25. RNA RNA helps the DNA RiboNucleic Acid Structure: single-stranded Basic units: nucleotides • Phosphate group • Sugar  ribose • Bases  Cytosine – Guanine Adenine – Uracil

  26. Nitrogenous Bases DNA RNA

  27. Atoms: C, H, O, N, P, S Basic units: amino acids (20) Functions: build muscles, fight diseases, & transports substances into and out of the cell, regulates chemical reactions in the body Some are called hormones, enzymes, neurotransmitters, etc. Foods high in protein: meat, eggs, poultry, milk & milk products, nuts, dried beans, peas, & lentils Proteins

  28. Secondary Structure The hydrogen-bond interaction among strands of amino acids giving alpha helices and beta-sheets shapes . Primary Structure The very basic strand of amino acids

  29. Enzymes Are proteins Speed up chemical reactions without being consumed or using energy Enzymes • Amylase - breaks down sugar • Proteases - break down proteins • Lipases - break down lipids • Catalase - breaks down hydrogen peroxide

  30. Enzyme Action Models Models

  31. Enzyme Action Models • lock and key model substrate & the enzyme fit together perfectly • induced-fit model Enzyme changes shape slightly to accommodate the substrate

  32. Factors that affect enzyme action: • Temperature – 37oC best for human enzymes • pH – different for each enzyme • 7 for amylase in the mouth • 2 for pepsin in the stomach • 8 for trypsin in the intestines • Concentration of enzyme and substrate • Coenzymes – helpers such as minerals and vitamins

  33. Identifying Macromolecules – An Investigation • The four macromolecules that make up most biological systems are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The prefix macro- means large, so these “large molecules” are found throughout living things. For instance, the cell wall that surrounds a plant cell is made of the carbohydrate starch; the cell membrane that surrounds all living cells is composed of a specific type of lipid, called a phospholipid; muscles in the bodies of animals are composed of proteins; and nucleic acids can be found in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. As you can see, even though these are “large molecules” they are small in relation to what we can see with the human eye. In this aligned investigation, you are going to test for the presence of different macromolecules in foods that may be consumed in an average daily diet. You will also have to identify both the structure and the function of these macromolecules after observing the outcome of each test. • Indicators (change color when exposed to specific compounds) – • Biuret’s Reagent – changes color from blue to violet in the presence of protein. • Biuret’s contains NaOH, sodium hydroxide, which is a strong base. Do not allow contact with your skin or other material. • Benedict’s Solution – changes color from blue to green in the presence of a small amount of simple sugars, from blue to orange in the presence of a moderate amount of simple sugars, and blue to brown in the presence of a large amount of simple sugars. • Benedict’s Solution can stain clothing. It also only changes color after being heated for 3 to 5 minutes in boiling water. Extreme caution should be used when dealing with warming tubes. • Iodine – changes color from brown to dark purple in the presence of starch. • Iodine is poisonous and can stain hands and clothing. Utilize appropriate lab safety practices when dealing with iodine and ask your teacher for assistance if you have any questions. • Sudan III – changes the color of the sample red and you can look closely and see individual lipid molecules. • Sudan III can stain hands and clothing. Utilize appropriate lab safety practices when dealing with Sudan III and ask your teacher for assistance if you have any questions.

  34. Complete the Pre lab Questions • Pre-lab questions: • What is the purpose of having distilled water as one of your test substances? • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • What macromolecule will we not be testing for in today’s lab? What is the function of that macromolecule? • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • In the table below, fill in the function of each of the four types of macromolecules.

  35. Write the question on page 12 • Resistance to antibiotics results from variations in the genetic code of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Which type of molecule encodes genetic information in Streptococcus pneumoniae? • A. carbohydrate • B. fatty acid • C. nucleic acid • D. protein.