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Period 1

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Period 1

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  1. Period 1

    Technological and Environmental Transformations To c. 600 B.C.E.
  2. Transformations Unit 1 covers the largest period of time- from whenever to 600 BCE. Farming came into existence Mankind settled together Writing was invented Humans had to grapple with new ideas like culture, politics, and new technology
  3. Transformations- Before 8000 BCE Paleolithic= Old Stone Age Migrated from Africa to Europe, Asia, the South Pacific, and the Americas 15,000-10,000 BCE- Ice Age- Humans survived through adaptations World started getting warmer after around 9000 BCE
  4. Transformations- 8000 BCE to 600 BCE Ice Age over!!!- Let’s go outside and do something productive Agriculture and transition from nomadic hunter-gatherers to permanent settlers Creation of complex social structures, economies, and cultures People living together needed law and order- government Specialization of labor Religions established Artistic expression
  5. Humans and the Environment Migration Humans appeared in Africa about 200,000 years ago 75,000 years later, migration out of Africa Prime real estate- mild weather, large body of water Population increased and large animals hunted to extinction- moved farther and farther 30,000 to 14,000 y.a. to North America across Bering Strait land/ice bridge or primitive rafts Rafts/boat to get to South Pacific islands and Australia By 10,000 BCE, humans on every continent except Antarctica
  6. Humans and Environment Fire and Tools Fire was a pretty big deal. Cook food, stay warm, clear underbrush, safety from predators Wolves learned to come around campfire to beg for food- dogs Tools Hunting Gathering Fishing Sewing needles axes
  7. Humans and Environment Neolithic Revolution- New Stone Age- Farming Agriculture cropped up around 8000 BCE Selective replanting = domestication First in Middle East, then in China, Papua New Guinea, and Mexico, and Africa “Revolution” took about 5000 years Early farming- slash and burn, use the field till dead, then move on Others used flooding (Nile, Yellow River) Agriculture required organization, innovation, discipline, and communication- CIVILIZATION Pastoralists- domesticated livestock- no cities, but spreaders Farmers and pastoralists drastically affected their environments
  8. Humans and Environment Technology Which cam first, agriculture or technology? First metal- copper- tools, art Copper mixed with tin makes bronze- much stronger Left Neolithic and entered the Bronze Age Bronze strong enough to plow a dry field- allowing farming in more areas So- bronze and hard work= permanent farm OR bronze sword and little work= someone else’s farm Evolution of warfare Bronze eventually gave way to iron- stronger and cheaper
  9. Humans and Environment Don’t mess with Mother Nature Living by rivers helps with farming, but FLOODS Monsoons in India Dependent on agriculture means very vulnerable to drought
  10. Culture- Writing Official moved from pre-history to history Allowed transmission of ideas over large areas with clarity First- cuneiform in Mesopotamia around 3300 BCE Mostly record keeping, but also the Epic of Gilgamesh King from Iraq walks around with his friend and kills a bunch of monsters Egyptian hieroglyphics- Book of the Dead, papyrus Shang China- pictographs Sanskrit in India- basis of Indian, Middle Eastern, and European languages- Rig Veda Olmecs- similar to Mayan writing, but no translation yet
  11. Culture- Architecture Pyramids- tallest structures until Eiffel Tower in 1800’s Mesopotamia- ziggurats (Tower of Babel) Americas- large mounds and stone structures India- spectacular temples China- elaborate royal tombs Impart the power of a king and his government or the priestly elite and gods; military might; entertainment; practical purposes Urban planning
  12. Culture- Religion Early mankind practiced rituals, including burial rites and prayers Many groups had dedicated holy men/women who were believed to possess magical powers and knowledge Increasingly complex- new centers of worship and burial Most were polytheistic, ancient Hebrews and Persians were monotheistic Great variety in beliefs, but most had deities that were connected to the physical forces of the world, some means of communication, and formal burial Some became more popular and codified in writing
  13. Culture- Vedic Religion Precursor to Hinduism Foreign invaders brought the beliefs to India Sacred books called the Vedas No central prophet, central authority, or orthodoxy Polytheistic Importance of recitation of Vedas Karma and reincarnation
  14. Culture- Judaism World’s oldest monotheistic religion Abraham probably lived around 3000 BCE From Mesopotamia, but migrated to Israel as instructed by the god Yahweh Hebrews moved to Egypt, then Moses led them out around 1200 BCE Hebrew people endured the destruction of temples, invasions, and occupations Ten Commandments Large temple rituals; hereditary caste of priests Follow the rules and God will favor you
  15. Culture- Zoroastrianism Once one of the most widely practices religions in the world, few Zoroastrians remain Centered in Persia The prophet Zoroaster (7th c. BCE) taught that the world was a battleground between good and evil Good- creator Ahura Mazda Bad (Corruption)- Ahirman Strict code of personal morality to prevent corruption
  16. State Building- Mesopotamia 1st to sustain civilization Settled- 8000 BCE; cities at 5300 BCE Sumerians- Babylon; Ur Ziggurats; cuneiform; Gilgamesh; wheel Babylonians Hammurabi (Code) Written mathematics Assyrians Military might- archers
  17. State Building- Egypt Nile- regular flooding- richest farmland in ancient world Old Kingdom; Middle Kingdom; New Kingdom 365 day solar calendar Pharaohs; mummies; tombs Pyramid builders mostly farmers during off season Priests important Hatshepsut- female pharaoh; records were destroyed Ramses II- expanded Egypt into Nubia, Libya, and Syria
  18. State Building- Indus Valley Modern-day Pakistan Mohenjo-Daro (near the Indian Ocean) and Harappa (northeast in Punjab) Not much of a historical record Archaeological records Collapse due to drought? Or flooding?
  19. State Building- Shang Dynasty China’s first (historical) dynasty Centered on the Yellow River Valley, but spread over most of central China Bronze for aristocrats and priests, but not commoners Highly stratified social structure Conquered by Zhou from the northwest
  20. State Building- Olmec Present-day Mexico from 1500 to 400 BCE Precursor to Maya and Aztec Written language (but not yet deciphered) Extensive trade Skilled architects Colossal Head statues Sophisticated calendar (that we can’t read) Sport that was a cross between soccer and basketball
  21. State Building- the Others Nubia- South of Egypt in modern Sudan Minoans- Crete, off the coast of Greece Mainland Greeks- Iliad/Odyssey; Mycenaean culture Phoenicians- sailors and merchants from modern Lebanon; alphabet Bantu- sub-Saharan Africans spread from the Niger river to most of sub-Saharan Africa
  22. Economic Systems Economy- refers to any system where different people interact to provide and buy different goods and services Basically, if anything exchanges hands, you’re looking at an economy The main point about the economy in this period is that it began. (simple enough?) Job Specialization- farming led to food surplus (a few could feed the many) Free time to work in religion, government, the economy Trade- if you couldn’t produce something for yourself, you got it from someone else and gave them either money or your own goods in return
  23. Social Structure Neo Rev had a huge impact on how we organized Social Stratification- Paleolithic- hunter or gatherer or both- all essential Neolithic and beyond- more complex, more rigid, more stratified We need to make sure people keep doing the terrible jobs that are necessary. Pyramid model Male dominated
  24. Social Structure - Kings Monarchy- usually reps of god on earth Zhou- Mandate from Heaven = absolute power Egyptians- pharaohs were incarnations of gods Mesopotamia- emissaries of gods Many Hebrew kings were prophets Small upper class- warriors, priests, scholars who upheld the power of the king (until they didn’t)
  25. Social Structure- Everyone Else Skilled labor- reading/writing, fighting, merchanting(new word!), or manufacturing Unskilled labor- farming, palace cleaning Slaves Stuck where you were born (99.99% of the time) Women- most civilizations put women below men Few legal rights Often treated like property (could be sold or forced marraiges) Some exceptions, like Hatshepsut This trend stuck around for a while