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Period 1

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Period 1

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  1. Period 1 Native Peoples of America

  2. The First Americans

  3. Peopling New worlds • Pueblos and Navajos- Journey from other worlds • Iroquois- Pregnant woman fell from the sky world • Paleo- Indians- Nomadic, Hunter-Gatherers, followed principal of reciprocity, stone age type tools

  4. Pueblos Iroquois Mythology Navajos

  5. Results of Global Warming • Extinction of Mammals • End of Ice Age • 2500 BC Societies- permanent settlements, agricultural revolution changing diets and medicine, mainly Mesoamerica, Maize • 1500AD- food surpluses, trade networks, religious and political systems, confederations • Nomadic groups still persisted in areas where food was scarce

  6. Mesoamerica and South America • Maize, Beans and Squash • Olmecs- Mesoamerica and Chavin de Huantar- Andes • Urban Centers • Wealthy Elites • Hereditary Rulers • Theocracies • Temples, Palaces and Pyramids • Chiefdoms- Some Matrilineal

  7. Chavin de Huantar Olmec

  8. Mesoamerica • Monte Alban and Teotihuacan • Wars of conquest • Bureaucracies • Tax Collection • Public Works Projects • Religious Ceremonies and Hierarchies • Sun Pyramid of Teotihuacan

  9. Monte Alban Teotihuacan

  10. Maya • Influenced by Teotihuacan • 600AD- 1400AD • Calendar, numerical system, hieroglyphic writing, paper

  11. Aztecs • 1420’s • Human sacrifice • Temple of Tenochtitlan • Calendar based upon the Mayan calendar • Drained swamp lands for farming, collected taxes from surrounding tribes • Pochteca- armed traders for the Aztecs- salt, jewelry, feathers, pelts, cotton, precious stones, gold, turquoise

  12. Incas • 1480’s • Cuzco • Conquered territories throughout the Andes • Maize, beans potatoes, meats • Terraced Irrigation, roads, bridges, storehouses, freeze-dried foodstuffs

  13. Southwest • Maize by 2500BC • 400BC full time farming begins • Hohokam Culture in Arizona • Irrigation canals, permanent towns, coordinated workforce • Confederations for trade, religion, politics • Ball courts, mounds, rubber balls • Clay, stone, turquoise and shell artwork

  14. Southwest cont’ • Anasazi- 700AD • Harvesting crops • Permanent settlements • Pottery • Complex apartments • Kivas- underground areas for religious ceremonies • Chaco Canyon- 15,000 people, road network, dams and terraces controlled rain water • Culture came to a close because of drought

  15. Eastern Woodlands • Poverty Point • Two large mounds- solar observations contribute religious beliefs and calendar • Quartz, copper, crystal and minerals • Olmec influence • Adena • 400BC • Mound builders • Hopewell • Mainly hunter-gatherers, women grew small amounts of Maize and Squash

  16. Eastern Woodlands cont’ • Mississippians- 700AD • Farmers • Sun worship, wives and servants accompanied the chief into the afterlife • Trade • Chahokia- declines after 1200AD because of warfare and scarce resources • Maize, beans, tools, controlled burn techniques

  17. Non Farmers • California tribes- fish and acorns • Plains Indians- deer, elk, bear, buffalo, sheep for food clothing, shelter, tools • Blackfeet and Pawnee built permanent lodges, farmed and hunted

  18. On the Eve of European Contact • 75 million people by 1500AD • 7-10 Million North of Mesoamerica • Nomadic in the Plains and Arctic regions • Fishing and gathering in Pacific region • Agricultural based civilizations in East and along river valleys • Many languages and dialects • Bound by trade, reciprocity, resources, technology, ideas, art, religion

  19. On the Eve of European Contact cont’ • Nuclear families- Man, wife, children • Extended families- nuclear family plus relatives • Some Matrilineal, some Patrilineal • Family feuds and justice, warfare • Women were the farmers • Spirit in Nature- Manitou- source of unexplained • Spirit • Dreams, Visions, Ordeals, Dances and Rituals