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Unit 3 PowerPoint Presentation

Unit 3

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Unit 3

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  1. Unit 3 Protected Mode Architecture

  2. Points to be covered… • TLB • Page level protection • Introduction • Segmentation • Support registers • Related instructions • Descriptors • Memory management through segmentation • Logical to linear address translations • Protection by segmentation • Privilege-level • Protection • Related instructions • Inter-privilege level • Transfer control • Paging-support registers • Related data structures • Linear to physical address translation

  3. Related instructions • ARPL • CLTS • CPUID • LAR • LGDT • LIDT • LMSW • LLDT • LSL • LTR • MOV • RDTSC • SGDT • SIDT • SLDT • SMSW • STR • VERR • VERW

  4. Selectors

  5. A selector that has an index value of zero & points to the GDT is called as null selector. • This selector is used to provide a method of initializing segment registers, since any access right using selector generates an exception.

  6. Segment Descriptor

  7. Logical to Physical address translation

  8. Privilege levels

  9. Paging

  10. Page Directories & Page Tables

  11. PDE & PTE Formats

  12. Protecting Segmented Accesses • Type Check • Limit Check • Addressable domain check • Procedure entry point check • Privileged instruction check

  13. 1. Type Check • Type checking is used to determine whether the current memory access (read/write) is allowed • Example: • Read-Only Data Segment (memory write) • Execute-Only segment (Read) • The types of accesses allowed are based on individual bits in the data & code segment descriptors • Writable bits ( DS descriptor) • Readable bits (CS descriptor)

  14. 2. Limit Check • Limit bits= 20 bits • G bit • G = 0 ; 64KB Physical memory size • G = 1 ; 4 KB Pages stored in memory (memory size = 4Kb to 4Gb)

  15. 3. Addressable domain check • The addressable domain of a task is a function of the task’s CPL. • CPL=0 Highest privilege 0 -> 0,1,2,3 1 -> 1,2,3 2 -> 2,3 3 -> 3

  16. 4. Procedure entry point check • Call gate

  17. 5. Privileged instruction check Some instructions are privileged & may only be executed when the CPL = 0 • CLTS • HLT • INVD • INVLPG • WBINVD • MOV to/from CR • MOV to/from DR • LGDT • LLDT • LIDT • LMSW • LTR Clear Task switching flag in CR0 Invalidate Internal Cache Invalidates (flushes) the translation look aside buffer (TLB) entry specified with the source operand. Write Back and Invalidate Cache

  18. Description • Moves the contents of a control register (CR0, CR2, CR3, or CR4) to a general-purpose register or vice versa. The operand size for these instructions is always 32 bits, regardless of the operand-size attribute. • When loading a control register, a program should not attempt to change any of the reserved bits; that is, always set reserved bits to the value previously read. Operation • DEST  SRC; Flags Affected • The OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF flags are undefined.

  19. Translation Look aside Buffer or Page Translation Cache

  20. Introduction • The architecture of Pentium protected mode is different than real mode • PE bit = 0 [Enter into protected mode] • Features / advantages provided by Pentium: • Segmentation & Paging • Protection • Multitasking • It allows the processor to run all 8086 & 80286 programs • Virtual addressing increases memory • It increases linear address space to 4 GB & allows the running virtual memory pgms of approximately unlimited size (64 terabytes)

  21. Segmentation • Advantages of segmentation: • Provides powerful memory mgmt mechanism • The segmented structure of Pentium mem. Space supports modular s/w design • Segments provide a way to easily implement object oriented pgms • It allows two processes to easily share data • Segmentation makes it possible to separate the mem. areas for stack, data & code