UNIT 3 THE WORLD WAR I ERA
OBJECTIVES • CORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the causes and effects of World War I. • Objective 4.3:Analyze the military and financial ways in which America prepared for war. • THEME:At the beginning of the 20th century, a terrible war begins in Europe that will claim over 8 million lives. After staying neutral for a few years, the United States declared war to support its allies and felt the effects of warfare.
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 19: The World War I Era (1914–1920) Section 1: The Road to War Section 2: The United States Declares War Section 3: Americans on the European Front Section 4: Americans on the Home Front Section 5: Global Peacemaker
Presidents of the United States • #21 - … • Chester A. Arthur; Republican (1881) • Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1884) • Benjamin Harrison; Republican (1888) • Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1892) • William McKinley; Republican (1896) • Theodore Roosevelt; Republican (1901) • William Howard Taft; Republican (1909) • #28 - Woodrow Wilson; Democrat (1913) George Washington; Federalist (1788) John Adams; Federalist (1796) Thomas Jefferson (1800) James Madison (1808) James Monroe (1816) John Quincy Adams (1824) Andrew Jackson; Democrat (1828) Martin Van Buren; Democrat (1836) William Henry Harrison; Whig (1840) John Tyler; Whig (1841) James K. Polk; Democrat (1844) Zachary Taylor; Whig (1848) Millard Fillmore; Whig (1850) Franklin Pierce; Democrat (1852) James Buchanan; Democrat (1856) Abraham Lincoln; Republican (1860) Andrew Johnson; Democrat (1865) Ulysses S. Grant; Republican (1868) Rutherford B. Hayes; Republican (1876) James Garfield; Republican (1880)
AMERICANS ON THE EUROPEAN FRONT Chapter 19 Section 3 NOTES:
Moving Toward War Building an Army • Despite the preparedness movement, the United States lacked a large and available military force. • Congress sent the Allies supplies and $3 billion in loans. A small force of 14, 500 led by General Pershing was sent as well. • Congress passed a Selective Service Act in May 1917, drafting many young men into the military. • Draft was widely accepted • All males age 21 to 31, later changed to 18-45 • 3 out of 24 million were drafted Training for War • Draftees, volunteers, and National Guardsmen made up what was called the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), led by General John J. Pershing. • New recruits were trained in the weapons and tactics of the war by American and British lecturers at new and expanded training camps around the country. • Ideally, the military planned to give new soldiers several months of training. • However, the need to send forces to Europe quickly sometimes cut training time short.
U.S. ENTRY INTO WWI congress actions
AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918
The Convoy System and Americans in Europe The Convoy System • To transport troops across the Atlantic, the United States employed convoys, or groups of unarmed ships surrounded by armed naval vessels equipped to track and destroy submarines. • Due to the convoy system, German submarines did not sink a single ship carrying American troops. American Soldiers in Europe • By 1918, European nations had begun to run out of men to recruit. • Energetic American soldiers, nicknamed doughboys, helped replace the tired fighters of Europe.
Key battles Key Battles • Battle of the Marne • Battle of Verdun • 1st Battle of the Marne • 2nd Battle of the Marne
CHANGES IN RUSSIA • With the Russian Revolution (March 1917) Czar Nicholas II was overthrown • However, the new Republican government remained involved in the unpopular war • In the spring of 1918, Germany provided safe passage for Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Russian Bolsheviks, from Switzerland to Russia. • The Bolsheviks successfully overthrew the Russian republican government and made peace with Germany. • The resulting truce ceded valuable Russian land to Germany and also meant that the German military could concentrate exclusively on the Western front. • Before the arrival of American troops, Germany was able to gain ground in France, coming within 50 miles of Parisin May 1918
Turning the tide of war • General Pershing’s troops, however, pushed back the Germans in a series of attacks. • They recapture the village of Cantigny on May 28 • Chateau-Thierry (June 4) – at a loss of half their men, General James Harbord and his “We dig no trenches to fall back on strategy” works • Finally, the German army was driven to full retreat in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive that begun on September 26, 1918 and ended on November 11
Ending the War • In the face of Allied attacks and domestic revolutions, the Central Powers collapsed one by one. • Austria-Hungary splintered into smaller nations of ethnic groups • German soldiers mutinied, feeling that defeat was inevitable. • When the Kaiser of Germany fled to Holland, a civilian representative of the new German republic signed an armistice, or cease-fire, at 5am on November 11, 1918 which ended WWI.
Results of the war • The influenza epidemic of 1918 killed more people, both in the United States and Europe, than all of the wartime battles. • Believed to be carried by Americans - Could kill within days • Estimated ½ million in U.S. and 30 million worldwide perish • Dead and Wounded • The estimated death toll of World War I was 8 million soldiers and civilians, including tens of thousands of Americans. Many more had lost limbs or been blinded by poison gas. • Many sensed that the war had destroyed an entire generation of young men and grieved for the loss of their talents and abilities. • Ottoman Empire • In an act of genocide, or organized killing of an entire people, the Ottoman Empire had murdered hundreds of thousands of Armenians suspected of disloyalty to the government.
Financing the War • Modern warfare required huge amounts of money and personnel. • Many sacrifices within the United States were needed to meet these demands. • War Industries Board • United States entry into the war caused many industries to switch from commercial to military production. • A newly created War Industries Board oversaw this production. • National War Labor Board helped ensure that labor disputes did not disrupt the war effort. • The government raised money for the war in part by selling Liberty Bonds, special war bonds to support the Allied cause. • Like all bonds, these could be redeemed later for their original value plus interest. • Many patriotic Americans bought liberty bonds, raising more than $20 billion for the war effort.
US ENTRY INTO WWI • Financing the war: • Sale of war bonds. • Liberty and victory loans raised $21 billion. • Raised income taxes
Managing the Economy • Using the slogan, “Food will win the war,” Herbert Hoover, head of the Food Administration and future President, began to manage how much food people bought. • Hoover had the power to impose price controls, a system of pricing determined by the government, and rationing, or distributing goods to customers in a fixed amount. • However, instead of forcing companies to comply, Hoover preferred to rely on voluntary restraint and increased efficiency. • Daylight savings time was created to increase the number of daylight hours available for work. This involved turning clocks back one hour for the summer, creating one more hour of daylight.
Enforcing loyalty • Fear the Foreigner • Fear of espionage, or spying, was widespread; restrictions on immigration were called for and achieved. • Hate the Hun • The war spurred a general hostility toward Germans, often referred to as Huns in reference to European invaders of the fourth and fifth centuries. • German music, literature, language, and cuisine became banned or unpopular. • Repression of Civil Liberties • Despite Wilson’s claim that the United States fought for liberty and democracy, freedom of speech was reduced during the war. • Espionage Age (1917) and Sedition Act (1918) limit free speech • Sedition, or any speech or action that encourages rebellion, became a crime. • Over 1,000 citizens were convicted of sedition
Changes for African Americans • Many African Americans volunteered or were drafted for service. • However, these men served in segregated units and served noncombat roles. • 300,000 are drafted into segregated units • The Harlem Hell Fighters (369th) were loaned to the French and earned the Croix de Guerre • With much of the work force in the military, factory owners and managers who had once discriminated against minorities began actively recruiting them. • The flood of African Americans leaving the South to work in northern factories became known as the Great Migration.
NEW ROLES FOR WOMEN • Military Service • 11,000 women served in uniform as nurses, drivers, and clerks • The diminished male work force also created new opportunities for women. • Many women joined the work force for the first time during the war. • Some found work on farms with the Woman’s Land Army; others took jobs traditionally reserved for men in factories. • 40,000 women found new jobs in industry