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Unit 11: Bacteria and Viruses

Unit 11: Bacteria and Viruses

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Unit 11: Bacteria and Viruses

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  1. Unit 11: Bacteria and Viruses

  2. Agenda 3/28 • Watch rest of Ebola Video • Warm up #1: Catching a cold • Notes: Microbes • Article: Food safety • Mini Lab: Potato Swabbing * NO HOMEWORK 

  3. Warm up 1: Catching a cold Check off the things that cause you to catch a cold (check as many as you’d like) Having a fever___ Being wet ___ Being wet and cold ____ Germs___ Spoiled food ___ Imbalance of body fluid__ Cold weather___ lack of exercise___ Explain your thinking. Describe how people catch a cold.

  4. I. Microbes • Single-celled organisms • Invisible to the naked eye • Where can we find microbes? • In the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, the food we eat, and they're even inside us! • Have been around for 3.5 billion years

  5. II. What do microbes look like? • Magnified 1000’s of times and colored using dye E. coli, a bacterium which lives inside humans. A type of flu virus. Athlete’s foot.

  6. III. Microbes: Three types A. Bacteria Ex: strep bacteria B. Virus Ex: rotavirus C. Fungi Ex: mold

  7. IV. Bacteria • Have three main shapes spirilla little balls(cocci) rods (bacilli) B. Can move about on their own

  8. V. Virus • Come in 1000s of different shapes and sizes. B. They hang about waiting to meet a ‘host’ which they then invade, hijacking the host’s cells. **Beware the air you breathe and door handles! (especially if its Ebola, ahhhhhhh!!

  9. VI. Fungi • Not just mushrooms!! B. Athlete’s foot, penicillin, and yeast. C. Yeast is used in bread making (It’s cute, too!!)

  10. VII. What can bacteria do ? • Bacteria in the Cafeteria • Bacteria do many good things, such as decompose waste and give texture and flavour to food. • Bacteria can give off oxygen when they ‘eat’. * Next let’s read an article about food safety!

  11. Potato Experiment • Make a hypothesis about what your potato is going to look like. • One group member can come up to the front and find their potato. • Record your data (how did it change, what do you see?)… Don’t forget your picture! ** DO NOT open the baggie!!! Stinky= NO NO

  12. Potato Bacteria

  13. Potato Fungus

  14. Pathogens

  15. I. Pathogens • Pathogen • Any disease-causing agent

  16. II. What is a virus? • A virus is made of DNA or RNA and a protein coat. • Non-living pathogen • Can infect many organisms

  17. III. Viral Structure • Viruses have a simple structure. • genetic material • capsid, a protein shell • maybe a lipid envelope, a protective outer coat

  18. capsid DNA tail sheath tail fiber IV. Bacteriophage • Bacteriophages infect bacteria.

  19. V. Viral Entry • Bacteriophages pierce host cells • Viruses of eukaryotes enter by endocytosis • Viruses of eukaryotes also fuse with membrane

  20. VI. Viral infections A. A lytic infection causes the host cell to burst The bacteriophage attachesand injects its DNA into a host bacterium. The host bacterium breaks apart, or lyses. Bacteriophages are ableto infect new host cells. The viral DNA forms a circle. The viral DNA directs the hostcell to produce new viral parts.The parts assemble into newbacteriophages.

  21. VI. Viral Infection B. A lysogenic infection does no immediate harm The viral DNA is called a prophage when it combines with the host cell’s DNA. The prophage may leave the host’s DNA and enter the lytic cycle. Many cell divisions produce a colony of bacteria infected with prophage. Although the prophage is not active, it replicates along with the host cell’s DNA.

  22. Brainpop: Viruses http://www.brainpop.com/health/diseasesinjuriesandconditions/viruses/

  23. Agenda 4/1 • Warm up #2 • Check potatoes • HIV/AIDS article • Flu Attack video • Comic strips

  24. Warm up 2: Viruses • What is a pathogen? • What type of virus infects bacteria? • Why are viruses considered non-living? • What are the 2 infectious cycles of bacteriophages?

  25. Potato Experiment Day 3 • One group member can come up to the front and find their potato. • Record your data (how did it change, what do you see?)… Don’t forget your picture! ** DO NOT open the baggie!!! Stinky= NO NO

  26. Potato Bacteria

  27. Potato Fungus

  28. Flu Attack http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQ * Watch carefully, we will be doing an activity relating to this video!!!

  29. Agenda 4/2 • Warm up 3: Fighting Pathogens • Check potatoes • Share any comic strips • Notes: Vaccines and Bacteria • Brain pop: Bacteria and bacterial resistance • Music Vid: Bubonic Plague (Hollabckguuurl)

  30. Warm up 3: Fighting pathogens • What is a vaccine? What does a vaccine do? • What type of pathogens do vaccines work on? • What is an antibiotic? How do they work? • What type of pathogens do antibiotics work on?

  31. Potato Experiment Day 4 • One group member can come up to the front and find their potato. • Record your data (how did it change, what do you see?)… Don’t forget your picture! ** DO NOT open the baggie!!! Stinky= NO NO

  32. I. Vaccines (For viruses) • Vaccines are made from weakened pathogens • A vaccine stimulates the body’s own immune response. • Vaccines prepare the immune system for a future attack. • Vaccines are the only way to control the spread of viral disease.

  33. Viruses with Vaccines

  34. Rabies

  35. Mumps

  36. Chicken Pox

  37. II. Bacterial Structure • plasmid (genetic material) B. Cell wall C. flagellum D. pili

  38. conjugation bridge TEM; magnification 6000x III. Bacterial “Reproduction” • Asexual reproduction • Conjugation • transfer of genetic material plasmid b/w bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact

  39. IV. Bacteria Becoming Harmful • Normally harmless bacteria can become destructive. • immune system may be lowered

  40. Acne

  41. Lyme Disease

  42. Tooth Decay

  43. V. Antibiotics • Used to fight Bacterial infections • Antibiotics may stop bacterial cell wall formation • Antibiotics do not work on viruses • Prevention is best method to fight bacterial disease

  44. VI. Bacterial Resistance • Bacteria are gaining resistance to antibiotics • overuse • underuse • misuse • Antibiotics must be used properly

  45. BrainPOP Bacteria http://www.brainpop.com/science/diversityoflife/bacteria/ http://www.brainpop.com/health/diseasesinjuriesandconditions/antibioticresistance/preview.weml

  46. Bubonic Plague Song https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZy6XilXDZQ

  47. Bill Nye- Germs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HS9L6zRO084