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Burns. 70% of burn injuries occur in the home. Prevention. Smoke alarms Candles (xmas) Pan placement on stoves Fire extinguisher Care around flammable products (gasoline, kerosene) Nephew Appliances off Fireplace and wood stoves inspected. Practice A Family Fire Drill.

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  1. Burns • 70% of burn injuries occur in the home

  2. Prevention • Smoke alarms • Candles (xmas) • Pan placement on stoves • Fire extinguisher • Care around flammable products • (gasoline, kerosene) Nephew • Appliances off • Fireplace and wood stoves inspected

  3. Practice A Family Fire Drill • Ladder for upstairs • Baseball bat for windows • Stickers on windows • Plan an alternate escape route • Meet outside at a designated place

  4. House Fire Scenario • You are in a bedroom, the door is closed, what do you do?

  5. House Fire Scenario • Drop to hands and knees (more toxic next to the floor) • Crawl to door • Feel door, knobIf hot, do not open • Most deaths are fromsmoke inhalation

  6. Burns • Thermal • Chemical • Electrical

  7. Thermal Burns • Caused by : • Flames • Hot objects • Flammable vapor that ignites • Steam or hot liquid • (baby in Texas)

  8. Thermal Burns: What To Do • Stop • Drop • Roll

  9. Thermal Burns: What To Do #2 • Remove smoldering, hot, or burned clothing • Do not remove “stuck” clothing • Remove jewelry (necklace burn)

  10. Thermal Burns: What To Do • Make quick assessment • Check ABC’s • It is appropriate to consider the following but don’t waste time • Determine depth of burn • Determine extent of burn (rule of 9’s • Head = 9% (18% child & infant) • One hand and arm = 9% • Each leg = 18 % (14% child and infant) • Front torso = 18% (9% upper half, 9% lower half) • Back torso = 18% (9% upper half, 9% lower half)

  11. Thermal Burns: What To Do • Rule of palm = 1% • Use for scatter burns • See physician for burns to face, hands, feet or genitals • Circumferential burn? See physician • Does victim have other medical problems?

  12. Chemical Burns • Caused by: • Acids (batteries) • Alkalis (drain cleaners- often more extensive) • Organic compounds (oil products)

  13. Chemical Burns • If substance is dry: • Brush off before rinsing with water • Protect yourself • After brushing off chemical, or after exposure to liquid chemical: • Rinse with water for 20 minutes or longer • Remove contaminated clothing while flushing with water • Final rinse? Use soap

  14. Chemical Burns #2 • Call poison control • Cover with dry sterile dressing • Do not try to neutralize a chemical • (save label) • Seek medical attention for all chemical burns

  15. Chemical Burn to the Eye • Flush 20 minutes with low pressure water • Milk or other non-irritating liquid • Remove contacts • Flush outward • Roll eyeball • Loosely bandage both eyes with cold, wet dressings • Seek medical attention

  16. Electrical Burns • Prevention: • Outlet covers • Breakers • Gadget for checking power • Excessive number of power cords plugged in

  17. Electrical Burns • External burns may not be present • May induce: • ventricular fibrillation (cardiac problems) • Respiration problems • “Freeze” due to muscle spasms

  18. Electrocution • Electricity travels along nerves and vessels • Exits body where it is in contact with ground • May have several exit sites • Surface injury may be “tip of the ice berg”

  19. Car Accident Involving Power Line • What should you do first? • Should you remove victim from the vehicle? • What if you feel tingling in your legs? • Should you try to remove downed wires or poles? • (buried power line)

  20. Someone Has Made Contact with Power Inside Your House • What would you do first? • Then : • Check ABC’s • Treat for shock • Seek medical attention

  21. What to do for Electrical Burns • Once the power is off, Check ABC’s • Spinal injury from fall? • Treat for shock • Most are 3rd degree • Cover with sterile dressing, elevate body part • Seek medical attention (burn center) • (combine / lift)

  22. Degree of Burns • First-degree (superficial) • Second-degree (partial thickness) • Third-degree (full thickness)

  23. First Degree Burns (superficial) • Affects outer layer of skin • Redness, swelling, tenderness, pain • Usually heals without scarring

  24. Care of First-Degree Burns • Immerse in cold water 10 to 45 minutes or use cold, wet cloths • Cold stops burn progression • May use other liquids • Do not apply cold on burn covering >20% of the body • Aspirin or ibpuprofen • Acetaminophen will not reduce inflammation • Bacitracin (no other OTC products) • Aloe vera , moisturizer lotion • Dressing? • Drink plenty of water

  25. First Degree Burns • Do not: • Cover first degree burns • Do not use anesthetic sprays with benzocaine (may cause contact dermatitis)

  26. Second Degree Burns (partial thickness) • Extends into the inner layer of skin • Blisters, swelling, weeping, severe pain

  27. Care of Second Degree Burns • Immerse in cold water / wet pack • Aspirin or ibuprofen • Drink plenty of water • Apply bacitracin or Silvedene (do not use home remedies) • Cover burn with non-sticking dressing • If burn is extensive: • Treat for shock / seek medical attention • Do not break blisters • Hot tar on lip

  28. Third Degree Burns • Extends through skin, muscle and bone -Nerve endings are destroyed • Discoloration • Area larger than a half-dollar requires tissue removal and grafting to properly heal

  29. Care of Third Degree Burns • Usually not necessary to apply cold to areas of third degree • Do not apply ointments • Apply sterile, non-stick dressings (do not use plastic) • Check ABC’s • Treat for shock • Medical help • (radiator burn)

  30. Sunburn • Usually 1st degree, sometimes 2nd degree • Cool compresses • Drink plenty of fluids • Fever / chills • Use lotions, bacitracin (lake, snow skiing, lips, ears) • Prevention: • Sunscreen: SPF 30 has only 3% > protection than SPF 15 • Skin cancer

  31. Respiratory Tract Burns • All must receive medical care • Nose to trachea receives brunt of the burn • Swelling may appear in 2 to 24 hours • Chlorine • Add to water • Wall paper removers • Bathroom cleaning agents (chemistry set) • Use products in well ventilated area • Don’t mix ammonia and bleach • Toilet bowl flushes

  32. Other Moderate to Severe Burns Requiring Medical Care • Under 5 years old / over 55 • Breathing difficulties • Other injuries • Electrical injury • Suspected child abuse (teacher liability) • 2nd degree >20% of body • Third degree

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