Hazard Communication-”Right to Know” OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200
Hazard Communication “Goals” • Right to Know chemical hazards • PPE • First aid • Labels • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Close Encounters With Chemicals • We encounter chemicals almost every day. • Filling your vehicle with gasoline. • Cleaning the bathroom • Applying pesticides or insecticides • Using solvents or acids at work • Many chemicals can cause injury or illness if not handled properly.
Right to Know • OSHA created the Hazard Communication Standard to help ensure your safety when working with hazardous chemicals. • You have a RIGHT TO KNOW about the hazardous chemicals you use on the job and how to work safely with those chemicals.
Hazard Communication Standard • Chemical Manufacturers must: • Determine a chemical’s hazards • Provide labels and MSDSs • Employers must: • Provide a Hazard Communication Program • Maintain MSDSs • Train on hazardous materials
HazCom Standard (cont.) • Employees must: • Read labels and MSDSs • Follow employer instructions and warnings • Identify hazards before starting a job • Participate in training
Chemical Hazards-2 Categories • Health Hazards • Physical Hazards
Health Hazards • Health hazards fall into 5 main categories: • Toxic • Corrosive or irritating • Carcinogenic • Reproductive • Sensitizing
Toxic-Toxic Chemicals • Have an effect on one or more body organ or system. • This effect may be varied. • It may damage the lungs, stimulate or depress the nervous system, or damage other systems, such as the kidneys or liver.
Toxic-Toxic Chemicals (cont.) • Often the effect of a toxic chemical occurs at a site in the body that is different from where it entered the body. • It may have been inhaled into the lungs but affect the liver. • It may be absorbed through the skin and affect the brain.
Toxic-Toxic Chemicals (cont.) • Workplace solvents (paints, thinners and solvent degreasers) are a common kind of chemical that may be either inhaled or absorbed through the skin and generally affects the central nervous system, liver and kidneys.
Toxic-Toxic Chemicals (cont.) • The effect of a toxic chemical may develop immediately or may take months to years to develop. • Toxic effects are dependent on the dose – how much exposure you have over what period of time. • Often you can safely be exposed to low levels over a long time period.
Toxic-Toxic Chemicals Route of Entry • Toxic exposures also depend on the route of entry. • This is the way the chemical gets into the body and some ways are more efficient than others.
Toxic-Toxic Chemicals Route of Entry In comparing the different routes of entry: • INHALATION of a chemical via the lungs, can take a chemical directly to the blood stream, as can an open cut or rash. • ABSORPTION & INGESTION through the skin and gastrointestinal system are generally slower and less effective routes of entry. • The eyes aren’t a very effective route of entry, but are very sensitive to many chemicals. PROTECT YOUR EYES!
Irritating or Corrosive • Irritating or corrosive chemicals are very different than toxic chemicals. • And in many ways much simpler. • They have essentially one effect, which is to irritate body tissues that they come into contact with.
Irritating or Corrosive (cont.) • Irritating or corrosive chemicals affect the tissues at the site they contact and are not transported through the body to cause effects at other sites. • And the effect is generally immediate, or very nearly.
Irritating or Corrosive (cont.) • Acids and caustics are examples of irritant chemicals. • It is important to keep them off your skin and out of your eyes.
Carcinogens • Carcinogens are chemicals that cause cancer. • In many ways they act like toxic chemicals, exerting their effect on various body organs and systems and having an effect that is often long-term (occurring over a period of years).
Carcinogens (cont.) • Carcinogens are different than toxic chemicals in that their effect is less dependent on dose. • Even a one-time exposure to some carcinogens can cause cancer years later. • So preventing contact and exposure is especially important. • Asbestos and lead are examples of carcinogens found in many workplaces and homes.
Reproductive • Reproductive hazards affect the reproductive system directly (both male and female), depending on the chemical and its effect. • They also, in some cases, affect the unborn child, particularly during the first 3 months of pregnancy.
Reproductive (cont.) • Reproductive hazards act in some ways like carcinogens, requiring a relatively limited exposure for the effect to occur. • Again, preventing exposure, especially during pregnancy, is the key.
Sensitizing • Sensitizers cause an allergic-type reaction. • Often this reaction takes the form of a skin reaction, such as hives, or a respiratory reaction similar to asthma. • The reaction can be severe and tends to get worse over time.
Sensitizing (cont.) • With sensitizers, the reaction won’t be initially present. It requires initial exposure to trigger it, after which a very small exposure may trigger the reaction. • Again, controlling exposure initially is key.
Controlling Chemical Health Hazards So how do we control exposures? • Primarily by remembering the routes of entry. • You avoid inhaling chemicals by using a respirator if excessive airborne exposure will be present. • And by testing the air to assess the exposure level.
Controlling Chemical Health Hazards • You avoid swallowing chemicals by wearing the correct gloves and washing your hands before eating, drinking or smoking. • You avoid skin absorption by again wearing the correct gloves (especially if you have a cut or rash) and washing up frequently.
Controlling Chemical Health Hazards • If you get an irritating chemical on the skin or in your eyes, immediate first aid is critical. • Flush your eyes in an eyewash for at least 15 minutes, keeping the eyelids open. • Wash your skin thoroughly with water immediately.
Physical Hazards of Workplace Chemicals Physical hazards of chemicals include: • Combustibles and flammables • Explosive and reactive chemicals • Compressed gases
Combustibles and Flammables • Combustibles and flammables catch fire and burn, sometimes explosively. • They can be handled safely by remembering a few simple principles.
Combustibles and Flammables (cont.) To work safely with flammables and combustibles: • Control fuel by using safety cans, keeping containers covered, and using only the amount you need. • Control ignition sources by grounding and bonding containers and keeping flames away.
Combustibles and Flammables (cont.) • Remember the fire pyramid: Oxygen Ignition Source Fuel
Explosives and Reactives • Explosives and reactives present very specialized hazards. • Explosive: Compressed gas cylinders; aerosol cans • Reactive: Mixture of bleach and ammonia; mixture of acid and solvents. • The key with any chemical is to read the Material Safety Data Sheet (more in a minute) and know its safe handling.
Combustible Gases • Combustible gases are a physical hazard because of the pressurized container. • Keep them secured and capped when not in use. • Transport them on an appropriate dolly. • Use the correct regulator.
AMMONIUM FLUORIDE (CAS 12125-01-8) DANGER! POISON CORROSIVE Acute: CAUSES SEVERE BURNS OF EYES AND SKIN WHICH MAY NOT BE IMMEDIATELY PAINFUL OR VISIBLE. MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED.MAY CAUSE PNEUMONITIS IF INHALED. Chronic:REPEATED OR PROLONGED EXPOSURE MAY CAUSE LIGAMENT AND TENDON CALCIFICATION.CAUSES BONE DISORDERS. Avoid breathing dust or vapor.Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing.When handling, wear goggles Or face shield.Store in tightly closed container.Use only with adequate ventilation.Wash thoroughly after Handling. FIRST AID: IF CONTACTED:Immediately flush eyes and skin with plenty of water for at least 30 minutes,and skin For at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION.Wash clothing before reusing. IF INHALED.Remove to fresh air.If cough or difficulty in breathing develops GET MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY.If not breathing,give artificial resuscitation. IF SWALLOWED:Give water or milk to dilute.Do not induce vomiting.CONSULT POISON CONROL CENTER OR HOSPITAL EMERGENCY ROOM.Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious Or convulsive person. Container Labeling Label secondary containers with the following information (at a minimum): • Name of product • Precautions to take (summarized from the MSDS or the manufacturer’s original label)
NFPA Labeling NFPA-The National Fire Protection Association Blue - Health Red - Flammability Yellow - Reactivity White – Other hazards or special handling SCALE: 0 (No Hazard) to 4 (Extreme Hazard)
MSDS Book • The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document that is provided by the manufacturer of a chemical to describe the hazards of that chemical and the precautions to take in order to work with it safely.
MSDS Book (cont.) • Each Community that uses chemicals has their own MSDS Book for all chemicals utilized. If you are not familiar with the location of your MSDS Book or the chemical used in your Community, ask your Supervisor.
PPE Summary • Remember, when working with hazardous chemicals, make sure you are wearing the required PPE. • PPE may include: • Glasses or goggles and face shield • Gloves • Chemical Apron • Respirator • Foot Protection
First Aid Summary • Eyes: Flush with water for at least 15-20 minutes. • Skin: • Flush with water for at least 15-20 minutes (corrosive or solvent contact) • wash with soap and water (lead or inorganic arsenic contact). • Inhalation: Move to fresh air • Ingestion: Get emergency medical assistance.