Sci5#58 Review Unit 3 and Unit 4 and End of Course Assessment of Unit 3 and Unit 4
Yes, heat energy does behave in predictable ways. Heat will always flow in one direction from hot to cold.
When there is a temperature difference, heat will always move from higher to lower temperatures.
When warmer things are put with cooler things, the warmer things lose heat and the cool things gain it until they are all at the same temperature.
Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy between things that are touching.
Conduction can happen within one object. (For example, thermal energy can be conducted through the handle of a metal pot.)
Convectionis the movement of thermal energy by the movement of liquids or gases.
Convection in the oceans and atmosphere helps to move thermal energy around Earth, and is an important factor influencing weather and climate.
Electromagnetic waves can carry energy through places with or without any matter.
Radiation can also happen in other circumstances. Examples of radiation would be sitting in front of a fireplace or a heater.
Heating and cooling can cause changes in the properties of materials, but not all materials respond the same way to being heated and cooled.
Heating and cooling cause changes in the properties of materials, such as water turning into steam by boiling and water turning into ice by freezing.
You may notice as you work with heat transfer many kinds of changes occur faster at higher temperatures.
Metals are good conductors of heat such as copper, gold and aluminum. Wood is not a good conductor of heat.
Weather can change from day to day, and many factors are measured to describe and predict weather conditions. (EG: wind speed and direction, precipitation, temperature and air pressure).
In different latitudes and hemispheres there are different (and sometimes opposite) seasonal weather patterns.
By collectingand comparing daily weather data you can begin to predict the likelihood of a particular weather condition occurring.
An anemometer measures wind speed. One type is made of cups that catch the wind.
As wind blows the cups they spin. The dial on the anemometer shows the wind speed.
A barometer measures air pressure. It tells whether the pressure is rising or falling.
What type of weather is associated with the different pressure systems?
A high pressure system is a whirling mass of cool, dry air that generally brings fair weather and light winds.
These bring sunny skies. A high pressure system is represented as a big, blue H.
A low pressure system is a whirling mass of warm, moist air that generally brings stormy weather with strong winds.
A low pressure system is represented as a big, red L. It is common to have precipitation during a low pressure system.
Thunderstorms will form as the moisture in the warm air mass rises, cools, and condenses. As the front moves through, cool, fair weather is likely to follow.
A warm front forms when a moist, warm air mass slides up and over a cold air mass.
As the warm air mass rises, it condenses into a broad area of clouds. A warm front brings gentle rain or light snow, that may last awhile.
After many hours or days the precipitation will end and this will be followed by warmer, milder weather though often cloudy.
Stationary Fronts form when warm and cold air meet and neither air mass has the force to move the other. They remain stationary, or they“stand still.”
Where the warm and cold air meet, clouds and fog form, and it may rain or snow. This front can bring many days of clouds and precipitation.
An occluded front is represented as a purple line with teeth and half circles.
The temperature drops as the warm air mass is occluded, or “cut off,” from the ground and pushed upward. This front can bring strong winds and heavy precipitation.