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Biology Final Review

Biology Final Review

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Biology Final Review

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  1. Biology Final Review Session 1 Biology Introduction

  2. Q.1 What is the definition of Biology? • Study of Life

  3. What are the 7 Themes of Biology? • 1) Cell and structural function • 2) Reproduction • 3) Metabolism • 4) Homeostasis • 5) Heredity • 6) Evolution • 7) Interdependance

  4. Give the 3 points of the Cell Theory? • 1) All living things are composed of cells • 2) All cells come from preexisting cells • 3) Cells are the basic structure and function of living things

  5. Scientific Method Slides • .

  6. Name the Steps of the Scientific Method. • Observation • Prediction • Hypothesis • Experimentation/testing • Conclusion • After many successful tests= Possible Theory

  7. An educated guess, which is testable through experimentation is called… • A) Hypothesis • B) Prediction • C) Observation • D) Experiment • Answer A

  8. An dependent Variable… • A) factor that is measured • B) factor such as time • C) factor on the y-axis • D) factor on the x-axis • E) A and C • F) B and D • Answer: E

  9. The group in an experiment that does not receive the experimental treatment is called… A) Independent Variable B) Dependent Variable C) Control Group D) Experimental Group Answer: C

  10. Chemistry Review

  11. Define the general structure of an Atom • Protons (positive charge) and Neutrons (neutral charge) in a centrally located nucleus • Electrons (negative charge) are located in orbitals around the nucleus.

  12. Give the atomic number of an atom with 9 protons, 9 neutrons, and 9 electrons. • 9 • 18 • 27 Answer: A, This is Florine, The number of protons in an atom

  13. Give the atomic mass of atom with 9 protons, 9 neutrons, and 9 electrons. • A) 9 • B) 18 • C) 27 • Answer: B, Protons +Neutrons

  14. A substance that is composed of different atoms is called.. • Molecule • Compound • Element • Solution Answer: B, Molecules are a type of compound

  15. A substance that is composed of the same type of atoms is called… • Molecule • Compound • Element • Solution Answer: C

  16. The average of the mass numbers of all of the isotopes of an element is referred to as… A) Atomic Number B) Atomic Weight C) Atomic Mass Number Answer:B

  17. Define pH. • Hydrogen ion concentration in a solution • Scale from 0-14 • 7 neutral ph • X< 7 considered acidic • X>7 considered basic

  18. What two substances are formed when an acid (H+) and a base (OH-) mix? • Salts • Water

  19. Compare and contrast covalent bonds and ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond ELECTRONS are shared between elements. Occur between elements on the same side of the periodic chart. • In ionic bonds, ELECTRONS are transferred from one element to another. Occur between elements from opposite sides of the periodic chart (I.e. Na Cl)

  20. For a compound to be considered organic, it must contain what element? • A) Nitrogen • B) Phosphorous • C) Carbon • D) Oxygen • E) Hydrogen • Answer: Carbon bonded to Hydrogen

  21. Name the 5 organic compounds. • Proteins • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Nucleic Acids • ATP

  22. The suffix sacchar refers to … • Sugar, the organic compound carbohydrate

  23. 50 or more amino acids make… • Protein

  24. Nucleotides make up this organic compound… • Nucleic Acids- both DNA and RNA

  25. Fatty Acids make up which organic compound… • Lipids

  26. A type of protein which speeds up chemical reactions, without changing its shape is called… • Enzyme • An Enzyme is a biological catalyst

  27. Enzymes act on a substance called a… • Substrate

  28. Enzymes can be damaged by • A) Normal Use • B) Heat • C) Extreme pH • D) Electricity • E) A, B and C • F) B, C, and D Answer: F

  29. What limits cell size? • Surface Area. Organisms must be able to get things in and out of the cell quickly. • As cells get larger, volumeincreases faster than surface area.

  30. Solutions

  31. In this type of solution, there is a greater amount of stuff in the solution outside the cell than inside. • A)Hypotonic Solution • B)Hypertonic Solution • C)Isotonic Solution Answer: B

  32. In this type of solution, there is a greater amount of stuff in the cell than outside. • A)Hypotonic Solution • B)Hypertonic Solution • C)Isotonic Solution Answer: A

  33. In this type of solution, the stuff is equal inside and outside the cell. • A)Hypotonic Solution • B)Hypertonic Solution • C)Isotonic Solution Answer: C

  34. What happens to the water inside and outside the cell in a hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic environment. • Hypotonic- water rushes in “pop” • Hypertonic- water rushes out “cell shrivels” • Isotonic- the water stays constant

  35. The movement of particles from high to low concentration, without the use of energy is called… • Passive Transport

  36. What are the type of passive transport. Define Each. • Diffusion- movement of molecules from high to low (I.e. perfume sprayed from a bottle) • Osmosis- Diffusion of water across a plasma membrane • Facilitated diffusion- Uses carrier proteins to move substance from high to low.

  37. What type of transport uses energy (ATP) to move substances against the concentration gradient? • Active Transport

  38. What are the type of active transport? Define Each. • Sodium-Potassium pump- Used in nerves to pump sodium outside of the cell against the concentration gradient • Endocytosis- Used to take in large substances (I.e. eating bacterial cells) • Exocytosis- Used to remove extremely large substances (I.e. dead cell parts)

  39. What is a prokaryote and give an example of one. • A cell that has no nucleus or membrane bound organelles • Ex. Both kingdoms of Bacteria, Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

  40. What are the 3 shapes of Bacteria? • A) Coccus, Spiral, Rod • B) Bacillium, Spirilliam, Rod • C) Bacillium, Spirilliam, Coccus

  41. What are the parts of a bacterial cell? • Cell Wall • Plasma Membrane • Circular DNA • Can form an endospore (protective shell)

  42. Bacteria are killed by antibiotics. Name a few common bacterial infections. • Cavaties – streptococcous mutans • Botulism- • Tuberculosis • Plague • Strep Throat • Bacterial Pneumonia

  43. Viruses are unique to the study of biology because… • A) They are not alive • B) They effect life forms • C) They contain nucleic acid • D) A and B • E) B and C

  44. What are the parts of a virus? A) Protein Coat B) Nucleic Acid (DNA or RNA) C) Organelles D) Cytoplasm E) A and B

  45. How do viruses reproduce? • Inside a living host • Lysogenic Cycle- viral nucleic acid joins with the host. Host is Symptom Free. HIV • Lytic Cycle- Virus activates and uses host to replicate. Host becomes ill. AIDS

  46. What is a Eukaryote, and give an example of one. • A cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles • Example: You are a Eukaryote, in fact all Kingdoms that are not bacteria are eukaryotes

  47. Organelles

  48. This organelle surrounds all living cells and regulates what enters and exits the cell. • A) Cell Wall • B) Cell Membrane • C) Nucleus • D) Nucleolus • E) Rough ER • F) Smooth ER

  49. This Organelle contains the cells DNA. • A) Cell Wall • B) Cell Membrane • C) Nucleus • D) Nucleolus • E) Rough ER • F) Smooth ER

  50. This Organelle creates RNA which is used in protein synthesis. • A) Cell Wall • B) Cell Membrane • C) Nucleus • D) Nucleolus • E) Rough ER • F) Smooth ER