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COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES PowerPoint Presentation
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COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

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COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

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  1. COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

  2. Karl Marx • “Father of Communism” • German Socialist • The Communist Manifesto (1848)

  3. Principles of Socialism • Capitalists control private enterprise (means of production), creating an unacceptable inequality • In favor of the equality of outcome (no hunger or poverty) • People as a whole should control economic enterprises. • Capitalist elite exploit masses

  4. Principles of Marxism • Society passes through stages • Pre-modern to industrial • Class conflict • Bourgeoisie (Capitalist elite) • Proletariat (working masses) • Elite capitalists create a SUPERSTRUCTURE • Institutions to control the masses • GOVERNMENT • RELIGION

  5. Principles of Marxism • Revolution occurs in an industrialized society • Proletariat masses rise up • Post-Revolution • No superstructure • No exploitation of worker • No private ownership • “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.” • Society w/no superstructure (no state institutions or private property)=“Communism”

  6. Russian Revolution, 1917 • BOLSHEVIKS overthrew Russian government. • “Larger Faction” of Social Democratic Party • Actually: the minority • Eventually call themselves “COMMUNISTS” • V.I. Lenin: Marxist leader of Bolsheviks • Rivals killed or sent to gulags • Solidified control in 1921. • Renamed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

  7. Leninism v. Marxism • Russia was pre-industrial • A VANGUARD of the REVOLUTION (small group of revolutionary leaders) was necessary to provoke revolution. • DEMOCRATIC CENTRALISM • Rule by a few key leaders. • Primacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)– THE superstructure. • New Economic Policy (NEP) • Allowed some private property and businesses

  8. Marxism-Leninism • Marx’s revolutionary anti-capitalism; Lenin’s reliance of communist party-state. • 1924: Lenin dies • Named no successor • 1927: Joseph Stalin took control.

  9. Stalin’s Two-Part Plan COLLECTIVIZATION • Ended private ownership (NEP) • Collective Farms • Huge, state-run farms INDUSTRIALIZATION • Forced society to industrialize. • Surplus peasants farmers forced to cities. • Five Year Plan • Double production of all major industries. • Gosplan • Central State Planning Commission created goals for entire economy.

  10. Stalinism • Collectivization and industrialization by central planning, executed with force and brutality. PURGES • Millions of citizens and party member killed. • Obsessed with disloyalty within party. • Millions more sent to labor camps (gulag)

  11. Command v. Market Economy Determined by Central Planning Determined by supply and demand. State owns most economic resources Private ownership of resources. Little to none Fully Protected State- controlled Individual- controlled

  12. The Party State • CPSU ran the state. • Oversaw all people and institutions. • CPSU only route to success. • 10% of adults were members • Power centered with POLITBURO & SECRETARIAT • Democratic Centralism • GENERAL SECRETARY was head of both

  13. Recruitment of Party Elites • Nomenklatura • Lists of “qualified” CPSU members who could fill important party positions. • Secretariat controlled appointments • Elite ruling class

  14. Communism and the Cold War • Nikita Khrushchev (1953-64) • Loosened censorship • Denounced Purges • Decreased Cold War tensions • Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982) • Stagnating economy • Massive military spending

  15. Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991) New Programs • GLASNOST: • political “openness” • Allowed political dissent • PERESTROIKA: • Economic “restructuring” • Introduce elements of market economy • Private enterprise and private ownership (farms)

  16. Flaws in the Soviet System Lack of incentive for workers • “They pretend to pay us; we pretend to work.” • “The system is not working because we are not working.”

  17. Flaws of Soviet System Lack of innovation • Nomenklatura • Inbred spoils system • Encourages status quo • RAMPANT BUREAUCRATIC INEFFICIENCY • Poorly planned/run economy

  18. Flaws of the Soviet System Excessive Defense Spending • 40% of the Budget • 15-20% of GDP • 4 times greater than U.S.

  19. Glasnost: Soviet Republics USSR • 15 republics • 92 different ethnic groups • 112 different languages • Various republics (regions) pushed for independence. • Baltic States: 1989 • Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

  20. 1991 Coup Attempt • Communist hard-liners oppose Gorbachev’s reforms. • 3-day coup • Gorbachev detained at dacha.

  21. 1991 Coup Attempt • Boris Yeltsin • President of Russian Republic • USSR’s largest “state.” • Rallied public • Opposed Coup • Gorbachev resigns • USSR disbands • Dec 1991

  22. Commonwealth of Independent States (1991-current)