What do you remember??? When a stronger nation dominates a weaker nation it is called… What product did Britain sell to the Chinese in large quantities? What was the policy forced upon China to open itself to merchants from all nations? What was the rebellion in China to kick out all foreigners?
China Achieves Independence!Sun-Yat Sen & the Kuomintang 1911: overthrew the Qing Dynasty (ruled for over 250 yrs) & achieve independence for China Kuomintang=The Nationalist Party Sun-Yat Sen leader of Kuomintang THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA 3 Principles: 1. Freedom from imperialism (nationalism) 2. Democratic government (constitution, people’s rights) 3. Healthy economy to provide for the people
May Fourth Movement Sun-Yat Sen loses power & country erupts into civil war Warlords take over country May Fourth Movement (1919) Demonstrations throughout China that showed the Chinese people’s commitment to building a modern, strong nation Many young people turn to communism to achieve this
Communists vs. Nationalists Lenin sends advisors to China Sun-Yat Sen dies, Chiang Kai-shek is now leader of Kuomintang (Nationalists) fears communism (business family) Loses support of many b/c gov’t becomes less democratic, corrupt, & does little to help the people Mao Zedong, leader of Communists, gains support of the peasants Communists & Nationalists fight warlords together but then the Nationalists began killing Communists Kill most of the Communists in China…But not all
Civil War 1930-1949 Communists vs. Nationalists in Civil War (unite during WWII) Mao brings fighting to the countryside (peasants on side of communists) Guerilla warfare Nationalists driven out again and again The Long March 700,000 Nationalists surrounds Communists Communists face certain defeat & 100,000 flee 6,000 mile journey known as the Long March Nationalists chases them, Communists stay only a step ahead for 2 yrs Thousands die!!! See map p.451
Civil War Ends Japan invades China, Communists & Nationalists unite to fight Japanese Civil War resumes after WWII Communists (Red Army) win support of the people & win in 1949 People’s Republic of China Nationalists flee to Taiwan World Reaction: US helps Nationalists set up gov’t in Taiwan, wants to make sure communism doesn’t spread Soviet Union: thrilled! Sign friendship treaty w/ China & send them financial & military aid
People’s Republic of China Mao & new communist gov’t make promises and many changes Great Leap Forward (1958) Purpose: Modernize china’s economy by dividing land into… Communes—large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 people Very ineffective, poorly planned (no desire to work hard since owned nothing) 20-40 million died!!!
The Cultural Revolution Mao encouraged young people to initiate revolution Red Guards—militia units to enforce strict communism (mostly teenagers) Cultural Revolution (1966) Goal: to create an equal society of peasants and workers by “purging” China of intellectuals, capitalists, and others Led by the Red Guards who imprison, torture, murder civilians Close schools & destroy art, etc. Doesn’t end until Mao’s death 1976
Tiananmen Square Massacre After Mao died, China began to open & reform Tiananmen Square (1989) Begins with thousands of students protesting for democratic reform Over a million Chinese join during the 6 week protest The gov’t sends in troops & tanks Thousands of protestors are killed or injured!!! China is criticized today for its human rights abuses (Tibet, executions…)