China’s Last Emperor • 1912 – Puyi, the last Emperor of China, stepped down from his throne. • This brought an end to the Qing Dynasty.
Civil War in China • 2 Sides • 1 - The Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek. • 2 – The Communists, led by Mao Zedong.
World War II • During WWII, both sides worked together to defeat Japan. • China lost 20-30 million people during the war. • Images of the Japanese army in China.
Mao and the PLA • 1945 – after the end of WWII, millions of peasants joined Mao’s People’s Liberation Army. • 1949 – Mao’s PLA defeated the Nationalists. Mao in front of his People’s Liberation Army.
Taiwan Chiang Kai-Shek and 2 million followers fled to island of Taiwan. Now called ROC – or the Republic of China.
The Great Leap Forward • 1958 – Mao’s goal was to catch up with the USA in terms of Industrial might. • His goal – turn China from an agrarian power to an industrial power. “Hard work for a few years, happiness for a thousand.” – Government slogan.
The Great Leap Forward “Take steel as the principle. Leap forward in all fields.” Or “Steel is essential, fully leap forward.”
Collectivization • 1955 – Land was taken from wealthy landowners, and given to peasants. • 2/3 of all peasants received land. Who would support Mao? Landowners or Peasants?
Collectivization • He created collective farms with 30,000 people who were to live and work together. • It was a huge failure.
The Great Leap Forward • The Great Leap Forward was a disaster and a failure! • 15 million people died from starvation. • Natural disasters and policy decisions made by Mao were to blame.
China’s Great Famine • “He knew how to organize a revolution but he did not know how to run a country.” –Comment from one of Mao’s advisors about Mao.
4 years later… Mao is Back • Mao’s new ideas were published in the Little Red Book. • He called for a new “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.”
Mao’s Little Red Book • One of the largest number of books printed in history.
Mao’s Cultural Revolution • Mao’s Revolutionary Guards or Red Guards • brought on death and destruction. • 30 – 40 Million people were arrested, harassed and killed.
Mao’s Cultural Revolution • The Red Guards were to eliminate the 4 Olds: • Old Ideas • Old Culture • Old Customs • Old Habits
Mao’s Cultural Revolution • Torture, rape, imprisonment, harassment, and seizure of property were common.
Mao’s Cultural Revolution • Intellectuals were targeted for attack: • Professors, teachers, doctors, artists, people who had traveled or studied in the USA. “Pro-Western.”
The Red Guard • In 1968, the Red Guard was disbanded. • The PLA carried out mass executions of Red Guard members. • This brought an end to the Cultural Revolution.
Deng Xiaoping • Sept. 1976 – Mao died at the age of 82. • After Mao, China was 20 years behind the rest of the world. • Deng Xiaoping seized power and ended the Cultural Revolution.
Deng Xiaoping • Deng instituted the 4 Modernizations - Industry, Agriculture, Technology and National Defense. • Foreign investors were invited in China and students were sent to study abroad.