Basic Punctuation By: Jackson, Holly, Saiq, McKenzie
Definitions • Comma- the sign is a mark of punctuation used for indicating a division in a sentence • Semi colon- the punctuation mark (;) used to indicate a major division in a sentence where a more distinct separation is felt between clauses or items on a list
Using Comas • Use commas after and introductory • Put a comma after the main clause when a dependent clause follows it (except for cases of extreme contrast) • Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series • Use a comma near the end of a sentence to separate contrasted coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or shift
Using Capital Letters Use a capital letter for the following • The first letter in a sentence • The pronoun I • Proper nouns • Proper names • Religious figures • Titles • Days, months, holidays, NOT seasons • Members of groups • Periods and events, NOT centuries • Trade marks • Words and abbreviations
Using End Marks • Used to end a sentence • Use periods (.) most of the time • If the sentence ends with an abbreviation don’t add another period. Ex: I live in the U.S.A. • If the sentence ends in a title that ends in a ? or a ! DON’T add another period. Ex: I love the film, Whose Afraid of Virginia Wolf? • Use a question mark (?) at the end of sentences that ask a question • Use exclamation points (!) at the end of interjections or any other exclamatory expression • Exclamation points are usually only used in dialogue
Using semi colons (;) and Colons (:) • The colon is often used to introduce a list of items Example: You will need to bring three things to the party: some food, something to drink, and a small gift for the hostess. • A semi colon is often used to join together two independent clauses Example: Mary drives a Mercedes; Joanne drives a Chevrolet.
Using Quotation Marks • Don’t use them on indirect quotes • Use them to enclose titles of songs, short stories, essays, poems, and articles • End quotes with a , or . Inside of the ending quotation marks • Quotation marks always come in pairs • If a quote is interrupted don’t capitalize the second part of the quote • Ex: “Come here,” he said “and bring your stuff with you.”
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