Civil Rights Movement • Is about ALL minority groups including: African-Americans, Native Americans, women, Latinos, etc.
Civil Rights Movement • African-American civil rights movement begins after the American Civil War • Reconstruction Amendments (13th, 14th, & 15th) • The South found ways to deny voting rights to African-Americans • Poll taxes, literacy tests, & the grandfather clause
Segregation & Discrimination • Plessy v. Ferguson (1890)- separate but equal facilities are legal (know as Jim Crow Laws in the South) • De facto segregation- by custom/tradition, racial etiquette • De jure segregation- by law (Jim Crow) • Segregated neighborhoods & schools • Work/pay discrimination (common in the North & West- Mexicans, Native-Americans, & Asians too) • Immigration laws
Civil Rights Movement • Many started to demand rights after fighting in WWII and working in war industries • Start of the “modern” civil rights movement in the 20th century- Brown V. Board of Education (1954)- ended segregation in schools • Other groups began to demand their rights after seeing the successes of the African-American movement.
Effects of Brown v. Board • States slowly began integrating schools • Many states experienced a violent resistance to integration • Set a precedent for integrating other public places
Major Events of the Movement • Little Rock Crisis • Montgomery Bus Boycott • Greensboro, NC Sit-ins • Freedom Rider Bus Trip • March on Washington • Freedom Summer • The Selma March • For EACH event: • WHEN? • WHERE? • WHO? • WHY? • RESULT/EFFECT?
Crisis in Little Rock, AK • 1957- Central High School • 9 African-American students integrate the school • Eisenhower calls in the National Guard • Showed the that government would enforce federal integration laws
Montgomery Bus Boycott • Began with Rosa Parks in 1955 • Led by MLK Jr. • Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation in 1956
Greensboro, NC Sit-Ins • Started by CORE • Non-violent protest of segregated lunch counters • Spread all over the country
March on Washington • 1963 • MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech (turning point) • Showing support for Kennedy’s civil rights bill
Freedom Summer • Members of CORE & SNCC • Voter registration focused on Mississippi • June 1964- 3 volunteers are murdered by Klansmen & local police
The Selma March • 1965 from Selma to Montgomery, AL • Members of SNCC had been working to register voters • 50-mile protest march organized by King to protest the killing of a person involved in a SNCC demonstration • Live TV captured the marchers being beaten by police
Leaders/Important People of the African-American Civil Rights Movement • Thurgood Marshall • Rosa Parks • Martin Luther King, Jr. • Ella Baker • President Dwight D. Eisenhower • James Meredith • Ernest Withers • President John F. Kennedy • President Lyndon B. Johnson • Fannie Lou Hamer • Malcolm X • Stokely Carmichael • Huey Newton & Bobby Seale
For EACH Person: • Name • Group associated with • Important events or actions • Most known for…
Gains During the African-American Civil Rights Movement • Brown v. Board of Education • 24th Amendment- eliminated poll taxes • Civil Rights Act of 1964- prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin or gender (employment & public facilities) • Voting Rights Act of 1965- eliminated literacy tests • Civil Rights Act of 1968- ended discrimination in housing
The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan • Captured the discontent women were feeling as stay at home wives/mothers • “The problem that has no name” • Feminism- the belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men
The Women’s Movement • Not much change since 1920 • By 1960, 40% of women work outside the home • Most jobs available to women paid poorly
Issues in the Workplace • Unequal pay • “glass ceiling-” an invisible, but real resistance to promoting women into top positions, regardless of qualifications
20th Century Laws Affecting Women • Roe v. Wade- Legalizes abortion based on the right to privacy • 19th Amendment • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Discrimination in the workplace • EOEC was supposed to enforce it, but rarely did • Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) • Never passed by the states • Opponents like Phyllis Schlafly argued against it. • Lead to the drafting of women, end the husband’s responsibility to provide for the family, lead to same-sex marriages
Legacy of the Women’s Movement • Transformation of traditional roles • Changing attitudes: career/family • Expanded opportunities • Political gains
Civil Rights Movement for Latinos, Native Americans, & Women • Cesar Chavez • Jose Angel Gutierrez & La RazaUnida • Russell Means & AIM • Gloria Steinem • Phyllis Schlafly • Affirmative Action • Title IX- meant to equalize opportunity