Civil Rights Movement I Have Adream The March on Washington
A. Philip Randolph • Founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters 1925 (BSCP) • BSCP first labor union for black rail way workers • Worked for labor as well as civil rights
1941 • Onset of WWII White Americans were emerging from the depression. • Black Americans were still unemployed and underpaid. • 1941 Randolph organized a march on Washington demanding more jobs for blacks in the defense industry
FDR and Executive order 8802 • Day of the March President Franklin Delano Roosevelt met with Randolph and asked him to call off march • Order 8802 “there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color or national origin.”
1963 • Good jobs for African Americans still hard to find. • 11% of African Americans unemployed compared to 5% of Whites • Average income of black family $3,500 Average income of white family $6,500 • Randolph decides it is time to march again. Enlist the help of Bayard Rustin
Bayard Rustin • Influential leader for civil rights • Planned 1st march on Washington with Randolph • Member of FOR (Fellowship Of Reconciliation) and CORE Congress of racial equality
Worked with American Friends Service Committee in 1942 to protect property of Japanese interment survivors Encouraged Dr. King to implement Gandhi's approach to civil disobedience and non-violent protest. Open homosexual Rustin was often keep behind the scene. Q: How does the treatment of Rustin reflect boundaries of civil rights? Is this relevant today? Rustin Continued
Planning • Randolph and Rustin met with civil rights leaders to propose the march. • Goals of march • Passage of the Civil Rights Act • Integration of public schools by year end • Enactment of fair employment practices bill, prohibiting discrimination • Demand for job training and placement.
Kennedy and the Civil Rights Act • Kennedy sent long awaited Civil Rights Act to congress in June of 1963 • He wanted the march called off for fear it would jeopardize the Bill • Didn’t want Congress to see African Americans gathering in large numbers. • blacks needed to be “unthreatening”
“Unthreatening” • Why would a march on Washington be threatening? • Who would be threatened? • Is there concern for Violence? • When leaders refused to stop the march Kennedy gave his endorsement
PASS THE BILL • August 28 1963,was the date set for the March on Washington • The theme of the march was “Pass the Bill” • Organizers now the task of orginizing the arrival of possible 100,000 people. • How do you feed them? Bathrooms? Medical Care? • Rustin took care of all the logistics
Instead of 100,000 people, they had 250,000. 60,000 of them were white. It was not a march displaying Black solidarity but one of racial unity. • They arrived on busses, trains, and car pools. One group of people walked from New York
The march had musical performances, as well as speeches. Some of those present were Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Odetta Mahalia, and Peter Paul and Mary
I Have A Dream • The key note speaker was civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. • His “I Have a Dream” speech was heard by millions of Americans and is one of the most powerful addresses in American history
What is a Metaphor • A figure of speech in which a word for one idea or thing is used in place of another to suggest a likeness between them • Example: The ship plows the sea • “one hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity”
Activity • Get into groups of Six • Each group will have a section of “I have a dream” speech • Each group will read through their section, underline at least three metaphors. • Using previous knowledge on civil rights history and American history each group will define their underline metaphors.
Each group will present to the class their section of the speech, the metaphors they identified, and their interpretations of them.
The march on Washington demonstrated for America that the civil rights movement was not just a movement for Black Americans but for all Americans. For one day 250,000 Americans stood at the steps of the Lincoln memorial and illustrated their determination and dedication to civil rights for all
18 days later 16th Street Baptist Church was bombed in Birmingham Alabama • Four girls ages 11 and 14 were killed in the blast • That same day in Birmingham police shot and kill a one black man and severely beat another. • the march on Washington was a shinning moment in the movement, but the battle was far form over.