Part I: Problems for African-Americans Civil Rights Movement
1. Jim Crow Laws • After Reconstruction, many Southern governments passed “Jim Crow” laws that forced the separation of the races in public places.
1. Great Migration • In the early 20th Century many African-Americans moved North to escape discrimination and poverty in the South
2. The Courts Plessy v. Ferguson—The Supreme Court said that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14th amendment. It said that the Jim Crow laws were OK. Brown v. Board of Education—Supreme Court said that segregated schools were not equal and schools must desegregate (stop being separate). The case included many separate cases, including one from Virginia.
Virginia Reponses to Brown Massive Resistance—Some counties in Virginia closed public schools and opened private, White schools
White Flight • Many Whites moved to the suburbs away from cities to avoid integrated schools.
Ida B. Wells (1862-1931) • Led an anti-lynching campaign and demanded that the federal government take action
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Accepted segregation. Argued that African Americans would become equal through vocational education and economic success
W.E.B DuBois (1868-1963) Said education was meaningless without equality. Founded the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) to fight for political equality.
Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) Leads the NAACP legal team on the Brown v. Board of Education case Later becomes the first African-American Supreme Court justice
Oliver Hill (1907-2007) • Virginia lawyer on the NAACP legal team
Participants were inspired by Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I have a dream speech.” • The march made the public more supportive of civil rights • The march showed that non-violent mass protests were a powerful way to make changes happen.