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Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement

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Civil Rights Movement

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  1. Civil Rights Movement

  2. Plessy v. Ferguson • The legalization of segregation • “separate is equal” • States started to pass Jim Crow laws • The goal was to keep the races separate • This kind of descrimantion was not limited to the south

  3. Birth of the Civil Rights Movement • Three events helped shape the movement of • African-Americans filling a labor shortage during WWII • African-Americans serving in the Armed Forces • A campaigned by organizers the led to FDR ending discrimination by all federal agencies and all companies that were engaged in war work • NAACP would fight segregation in the courts, Thurgood Marshall and other lawyer were able to win 29 court cases that chipped away at Plessy v. Ferguson

  4. Brown v. Board of Education • Stated that segregation in schools was unconstitutional • Little Rock 9

  5. Montgomery Bus Boycotts • Dec 1, 1955 • Rosa Parks • Martin Luther King, Jr was elected to led the boycott • Boycott lasted 381 days • 1956 the Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation

  6. MLK and SCLC

  7. King’s Philosophy • He based his ideas on several people • Jesus: love your enemy • Henry David Thoreau: civil disobedience-refusal to obey an unjust law • A. Philip Randolph: organize demonstration • Gandhi: resist oppression without violence

  8. SNCC • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee • Many students, mostly college, believed the progress was going too slow • They would a bit more confrontational • Sit-ins

  9. Freedom Riders • Designed to test segregation laws and an attempt to provoke violence

  10. More Battles • James Meredith enrolls at Ole Miss • Birmingham demonstrations

  11. Kennedy • Sends federal troops to desegregate University of Alabama • Calls on congress to pass a civil rights act • LBJ is able to sign the Civil Rights Act of 1964 • And the Voting Rights Act of 1965

  12. Freedom Summer • An attempt by civil rights volunteers to register voters

  13. Northern Segregation • De facto segregation vs. de jure segregation • De facto occurs in practice and custom • De jure occurs by law

  14. Malcom X • Took a different approach then MLK • He called for armed self defense • Ballots or Bullets

  15. Black Power and Black Panther • In both cases we see a distancing from MLK philosophy • More confrontational • More self sufficiency

  16. Legacy of the Civil Right Movement • KernerCommission: study the cause of urban violence • Stated that the main cause was white racism. • “This is our basic conclusion: Our nation is moving towards two societies; one black and one white-separate and unequal” • The report call for new jobs, improved housing, and an end to de facto segregation • Civil Rights Act of 1968: ended discrimination in housing