Civil Rights Movement Unit 10 “That all men are created equal…”
Rebellion & Reform in the 1960s The Civil Rights Movement aka “The Mother” Movement NAACP (W.E.B. DuBois, 1910) A. Phillip Randolph & “The Double V Campaign” Brown v. Board of Education 1954 THE WOMEN’S MOVEMENT Betty Freidan’s The Feminine Mystique (1963) JFK’s Commission on the Status of Women (1961) NOW (National Organization for Women) (1966) SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) & Martin Luther King, 1957 Rosa Parks &Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (1960) STUDENT POWER Free Speech Movement, Berkeley (1964) SDS Students for a Democratic Society Port Huron Statement ANTI-WAR MOVEMENT Mobilization to End the War 500,000 in DC (1969) Woolworth Sit-Ins (1960) March on Washington (1963) Freedom Summer (1964) Goodman, Schwerner & Chaney BLACK POWER Stokley Carmichael & Black Panthers Black Nationalism Malcolm X Radical Feminism Title 7 of Civil Rights Act outlawed discrimination based on race and sex Civil Rights Act (1964) Voting Rights Act (1965) Chicano Movements League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC) La Raza Unida (Mexican-Americans United) AIM – American Indian Movement (1968) Standoff at Wounded Knee (1973)
The Presidency of LBJ Lyndon Johnson assumed the presidency after the death of President Kennedy and continued Kennedy’s reforms which included improving the nations goods, tax cuts, civil rights legislation and a ‘war on poverty’. LBJ’s “Great Society” propelled to victory in the 1964 election and gave birth to the Job Corps and the Head Start Preschool program which are both active today. By 1966 the country’s attention had shifted to the war in Vietnam and LBJ’s important domestic work would be overshadowed by the Vietnam War.
Tinker v. Des Moines Story: High School students wore black armbands to protest fighting in Vietnam War Today: Protests are a right of under the 1st amendment. However, if it’s causing harm to others, you can’t just say and do whatever you want…
Fights Against School Segregation Review: In Plessy v Ferguson, the Supreme Court upheld the legality of Jim Crow laws and other forms of racial discrimination Ground Breaking: Sweatt v. Painter (1946): HemanSweatt (a black man) applied for admission to the Texas Law School but, rejected because of his race (separate but equal), but the school they would create for blacks was found to “unequal” Mendez v. Westminster (1946) ruled that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican Americans into special schools only for Hispanic children was unconstitutional. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka the Supreme court ruled that segregated schools (separate, but equal) were illegal. Note: This case overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer for both court cases and represented the NAACP
Re-election Campaign 1964 • In 1964, Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, entered the presidential primary • He would run four different times, he was a fierce pro-segregationist • He symbolically blocked the University of Alabama doors during the desegregation of the University (1963)
Johnson Re-elected • Johnson won the election of 1964 in a landslide taking 61% of the popular vote. • Johnson quickly began to make reforms in health care, education and urban renewal. • Head start and upward bound fosters improved development of young children from low income families • The Federal Housing Authority improved housing standards and conditions; insurance of mortgages
Supreme Court Under Warren • The Supreme court of the 1960’s followed LBJ’s reforms and became known as the Warren Court after Chief Justice Earl Warren • In Reynolds v. Sims the Court declared that voting districts must be drawn in such a way that each vote counts equally. • In Gideon v. Wainwright , all accused people had the right to a lawyer and in Miranda v. Arizonaaccused had to be read their rights.
Hispanic Rights and the Supreme Court Delgado v. Bastrop (1948) made it illegal to separate Hispanic children within schools because of their ethnicity, but it did allow for separate classes based on language deficiency which schools often used to continue segregation Hernandez v. Texas (1954) ruled that the 14th Amendment should apply to Mexican Americans and all ethnic groups and juries should represent various ethnicities and genders. These court cases were the foundation for Brown v Board of Education and desegregation in general Mexican school class photograph, Cotulla, Texas, 1928. The young teacher in the center is future U.S. President Lyndon Baines Johnson.
Notes #2 • Explain the significance of the Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination (US2D) • Describe the roles of political organizations that promoted civil rights (US9B) • Identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements (US9C) • Describe the role of individuals such as governors George Wallace, OrvalFaubus, and Lester Maddox (US9G) • Describe how litigation such as the landmark cases play a role in protecting the rights of minorities during the civil rights movement (US9G) • Identify and analyze methods of expanding the right to participate in the democratic process (US23A)
Decline of the Great Society • Congress passed 181 out of 200 bills that LBJ proposed, but some saw his programs as wasteful and unnecessary. • In 1966 Republicans increased their numbers in Congress and it soon became more difficult for Johnson to pass new legislation. • By 1966 the country’s attention had shifted to a new war in Vietnam, and the government began to focus money and attention on foreign policy more than domestic problems.
Racism in the South • OrvalFaubus, Governor of Arkansas, (1955-1967) best known for his stand in the desegregation of Little Rock High School • He ordered Arkansas National Guardsman to stop African American students from entering the school. • This would force President Eisenhower to sent the U.S. Army to escort the students to school. • Little Rock Nine: September 4, 1957 – nine African American students tried to enter Little Rock Central high school, but were turned away by Arkansas National Guardsman
Non-violent Resistance to Racism • In 1957, a group of African American leaders met in Atlanta, Georgia to discuss strategies to help end discrimination. • Led by Martin Luther King Jr. the group named themselves the (SCLC) Southern Christian Leadership Conference and pledged to use only nonviolent resistance in its protests. • By April of 1960 over 50,000 students (African American and white) had participated in nonviolent sit-ins to protest segregation.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • In 1963 Dr. King was drew national attention by attempting to end segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. • Protesters were attacked by police using dogs, fire hoses and nightsticks and public outrage over the attacks increased support for the Civil Rights movement. • On August 28, 1963 200,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Memorial to bring awareness to the Civil Rights movement. Dr. King’s “I have a dream” speech was the central moment of the March on Washington. • Dr. King’s most celebrated literary work also came in 1963 while spending 8 days in jail in Birmingham, AL after being arrested for leading an illegal march. • “Letter from Birmingham Jail” defended the breaking of unjust laws and was widely published throughout the US.
Violence and MLK’s Assassination • Martin Luther King Jr. was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement and preached a nonviolent approach and demanded equal rights • Martin Luther King disagreed with the tactics of Malcolm X and the Black Panthers, but King embraced the need for economic power. • Riots in Watts and Detroit killed nearly 100 people and the nation seemed to be on the brink of becoming two societies; one black, one white. • On April 4, 1968 Martin Luther King was killed by a sniper (James Earl Ray) on the second floor of his motel in Memphis, TN.
James Earl Ray Exactly what led James Earl Ray to kill Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. continues to be a source of debate, as does his role in the murder. Evidence does suggest that Ray had little stomach for the integration policies that were sweeping the country. In addition to his segregationist beliefs, he also saw a big payday, some historians have said, in killing black leaders like H. Rap Brown, Stokely Carmichael and, of course, King.
Rosa Parks and the Bus Boycott In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat on a Montgomery, AL bus to a white man. Civil rights leaders lead by Martin Luther King Jr. organized a boycott of city busses and the NAACP appealed Park’s conviction. After nearly a year of boycotting city busses, the city of Montgomery desegregated (integrated) its public transportation system. This type of non-violent protest along with sit-ins and marches were essential to the Civil Rights movement.
The Freedom Riders • Following the success of student sit-ins, a northern based civil rights group called the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) planned to send an integrated bus into the south. • The Freedom Riders were met with intense violence. In Alabama one of their busses was bombed and a CORE member was beaten so badly that he suffered permanent brain damage • Eventually, President Kennedy was forced to send Federal marshals to protect the bus riders.
Notes #3 • Explain actions taken by people to expand economic opportunities and political rights (US26A) • Identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements (US9C) • Describe presidential actions and congressional votes to address minority right sin the United States, including desegregation of the armed forces, the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964, and the Voting Rights Acts of 1965 (US9F) • Describe how litigation such landmark cases play a role in protecting the rights of minorities during the civil rights movement (U9I)
Freedom Summer • In the summer of 1964, the SNCC (Student Nonviolence Coordinating Committee) implemented a new plan to increase black voting called Freedom Summer. • Volunteers were trained and accompanied to the South by lawyers and health-care workers. • On June 20th , two white CORE workers were murdered in Mississippi. • The murders intimidated African Americans and by the end of the summer only 1,600 new voters had been added to the voting rolls.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 • In May of 1963 protesters in Birmingham, Alabama were attacked by police using dogs, fire hoses and nightsticks. • Public outrage over the attacks increased support for the Civil Rights movement. • On August 28, 1963 200,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Memorial to bring awareness to the Civil Rights movement. • On July 2, 1964 the Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion or sex and created the EOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission).
Registering Black Voters • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 allowed for equal voting rights and removed registration restrictions designed to keep blacks from voting • In Mississippi, African Americans made up 40% of the population ,but only 5% of registered voters were black. • Civil rights leaders tried to encourage southern African Americans to register to vote, but many feared lynching or beating if they attempted to vote. • Leaders were widely unsuccessful in registering large numbers of black voters in the early 60’s.
Reforms in Voting Rights • In January of 1964 the 24th Amendment to the Constitution banned poll taxes as a condition for voting. • On March 7, 1965 six hundred people marched through Selma, Alabama to protest unfair voting policies in the southern city. This day became known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ • Police officers attack the marchers with clubs, ropes and whips. Outraged Americans poured into Alabama to show support for the march • Congress passed the Voting Rights Act putting all voter registration under federal control.
African American voting registrations http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/civil-rights-movement/resources/civil-rights-revolution-interpreting-statistics
Questions to think about • What difference did the Voting Rights Act make on voter registration? • In which states was the impact the greatest?
Red = African American Blue = All Americans
Questions to think about • Compare black and white income distributions and educational attainment over time.
Black Muslims • In Detroit, Michigan, in 1930 Wallace Fardstarted a group known as the Black Muslims • By the time Elijah Muhammad became its leader, the Nation of Islam had 8,000 members and preached the supremacy of the black race • Muhammad urged followers to create their own republic within the US. They also rejected their last names as slave names and used the last name X. • They stressed self discipline and did not smoke, drink, or accept assistance.
Malcolm X • Malcolm Little (later to become Malcolm X) was born in 1925. His father was killed in a racially motivated murder. • Malcolm was a good student, but dropped out of school after being discriminated against by a teacher. • Malcolm eventually spent ten years in prison where he studied the work of Elijah Muhammad. • In the 1950’s Malcolm X became a leading minister in the Nation of Islam and called for separatism and violent revolution if necessary. • By the 1960’s, Malcolm softened his separatist views and broke from the Black Muslims
Black Power and the Black Panthers • Tired of being beaten and intimidated, some Southern blacks began a movement for black separatism called the Black Power movement. • Black antipoverty workers, Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, created a political organization known as the Black Panther Party. • The Black Panthers declared that black people must be free to determine their own destiny, and the party set up armed defense groups who often battled with Police.
Notes #4 • Describe the roles of political organizations that promoted civil rights, including ones from African American, Chicano, American Indian, women’s and other civil rights movements (US9B) • Identify roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements (US9C) • Evaluate changes and events in the US that have resulted from the civil rights movement including increased participation of minorities sin the political process (US9H) • Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society (US26D)
Backlash of Desegregation • White and black Americans had come to disagree with some desegregation policies. • When schools were ordered to desegregate, many black students had to be bussed to white neighborhoods to fill school quotas. • Many white people also began to feel they were suffering reverse discrimination, especially in the area of affirmative action which gave preference to minorities and women in admissions to universities and jobs. • In Supreme Court case, Regents of the Univ. of California v Bakke, the court upheld the right of a school to adopt an admission plan that included race or ethnicity as an element.
Civil Rights for Native Americans Native Americans were uniformly granted American citizenship along with their tribal citizenship in 1924. The Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 attempted to require tribal law to follow the basic individual rights and freedoms guaranteed in the US Bill of Rights. In 1968 the American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded to address the problems of poverty, housing, treaty issues, and police harassment. In 1969 the National Indian Education Association (NIEA) was formed to fight for Native American rights in public and higher education.
Hispanic Civil Rights and Culture • In 1962 Cesar Chavez, a former field laborer and activist for workers rights, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association along with Dolores Huerta. • Doctor Hector P. Garcia was a Hispanic surgeon and an advocate for Mexican American rights. Garcia was appointed to the US Commission on Civil Rights in 1968 • Founded in 1929 the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) was and is the most widely respected Hispanic Civil Rights organization in the United States. • In the 1960’s the Chicano Mural Movement used the walls of buildings to depict Mexican-American culture.
Chicano Mural Movement – beginning in the 1960s, artists using the walls of city buildings, housing projects, schools, and churches to depict Mexican American culture
Women in the Workforce The number of women working rose from 25% in 1940 to 35% in 1960. By 1960, women’s wages were 40% lower than men’s wages. In June 1963 President Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act for women requiring employers to pay men and women equal for equal work. Not included were women in agricultural, professional or service industries.(about 2/3 of all women workers). Women also received assistance from the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII of the act outlawed sexual discrimination in the workplace.
Increased Activism In June of 1966 Betty Friedan—author of the Feminine Mystic—co-founded the National Organization for Women (NOW ). In 1971 Gloria Steinem founded the National Women’s Political Caucus to encourage women to run for political office. In 1972, Congress passed the Education Amendments Act which outlawed sexual discrimination in higher education. In 1973 the case of Roe v. Wadegave women the right to an abortion in their first trimester.
The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night — she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question — "Is this all?" The Feminine Mystique
National Organization of Women (NOW) • Activism Today: • “It’s unconscionable that a woman who stands her ground against an abusive ex-husband could get 20 years in prison – never mind 60! Marissa Alexander was given a 20 year sentence for firing a non-lethal warning shot at her ex-husband, moments after he choked her and just days after giving birth. State Attorney Angela Corey prosecuted her anyways. The appeals court has overturned Alexander’s conviction — and now Corey wants a 60 year sentence against her. This isn’t the first time State Attorney Angela Corey has misused her power. She needs to go.” • One hundred entities have filed lawsuits against the contraception mandate in the Affordable Care Act. Stand with NOW and tell them it is not acceptable for employers to impose their personal beliefs on their employees.
Civil Rights today… • In the 21st century, we have the election of the first African American president, Barrack Obama • The appointment of the first Hispanic woman to the Supreme Court, Sonia Sotomayor • Oprah Winfrey, one of the most influential African Americans of the time period • Edgewood ISD v Kirby (1993): the “Robin Hood” plan – redistributed property taxes from wealthy to poor school districts
Legislative Reforms of the 70’s • Title IX (9) of the Education Amendments of 1972 stated that no person should be denied participation in any educational program on the basis of sex. • Title IX is most known for it’s impact on high school and college athletics. • In the case of Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) the Supreme court ruled that the Yoder family could remove their children from public schools after the 8th grade based on their religious freedom. (Amish) • In White v. Regester (1973) the Supreme Court ruled that legislative districts may not be drawn in such a way as to exclude or minimize the representation of specific ethnic groups.
American culture includes traditions, ideals, customs, beliefs, values, and arts, developed both domestically and imported from various countries around the world • America was founded as a country of immigrants and each cultural group has contributed to shaping the “American culture”