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RENAL ARTERY DOPPLER PowerPoint Presentation
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RENAL ARTERY DOPPLER

RENAL ARTERY DOPPLER

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RENAL ARTERY DOPPLER

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  1. RENAL ARTERY DOPPLER

  2. Upon completion of the presentation the viewer should be able to: Identify a normal renal artery signal. Describe Tardus-Parvus, RAR and Acceleration index. List causes for hypertension Outline a normal Renal Doppler exam Objectives

  3. Indications for a Renal Doppler Exam Renal Artery Stenosis Hypertension Anatomy & Variants Diagnostic Criteria Doppler waveform Exam Protocol Case Examples Table of Contents

  4. Evaluate a hypertensive patient for renal artery stenosis (RAS). Hypertensive patients not controlled with medical treatment. Patients with abdominal aortic dissection. Evaluation of renal transplant. Audible Bruit Patients with AAA Clinical Indications for Doppler

  5. Renal Artery Stenosis:Causes • Atherosclerosis: Plaque deposits cause narrowing/blockage. • Affects men > women • Typically effects age >40 years • Involves proximal aspect renal artery • Fibromuscular: Fibrous tissue growth in arterial walls. • Affects women > men ( approx.. 4: 1). • Typically affects ages < 50 years • Involves mid to distal aspects of renal artery • Acute: Traumatic injury causing obstruction.

  6. Relationship: Renal Artery Stenosis causes hypertension. Hypertension is the symptom that indicates RAS Doppler needed Hypertension and RAS

  7. Hypertension and RAS Adrenal Gland Kidney

  8. Hypertension and RAS • RAS • Increased PR • Decrease renal blood flow • Production of rennin

  9. Hypertension and RAS • Rennin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin. • Angiotensin is a potent vasonstrictor.

  10. Hypertension and RAS • Angiotensin also acts on the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone. • Aldosterone causes the kidney to absorbed more sodium and water.

  11. Hypertension and RAS • This leads to increased in blood volume and also the BP.

  12. Renal Artery Stenosis • Anatomy & Variants • Diagnostic Criteria • Doppler waveform • Exam Protocol • Case Examples

  13. Kidneys Vessels Accessory Vessels Doppler Waveform Renal Anatomy

  14. Size: 9-11cm Difference between Lt. & Rt. Renal Length < 2 cm Normal Anatomy of the Kidneys

  15. Normal Anatomy of the Kidneys

  16. Normal Anatomy of the Kidneys

  17. Celiac Axis Rt Renal Artery Lt Renal Artery Superior Mesenteric Artery Aorta

  18. Segmental arteries Interlobar arteries Main Renal artery Arcuate arteries

  19. Normal Right and Left Renal Artery Coronal View Transverse

  20. Normal Right Renal Artery Transverse

  21. Normal Left Renal Artery Transverse

  22. Renal Artery Stenosis Normal Variants & Accessory Vessels

  23. Normal Variants of Renal Arteries • Most common anatomy is single right and left renal artery (approx. 55% population)

  24. Normal Variants of Renal Arteries • Second most common an is accessory renal artery branching off a main renal artery (14%)

  25. Accessory Renal Arteries Branch off a main renal artery or aorta. Supply small portions of the renal parenchyma. Can be: 1) single or multiple 2) unilateral or bilateral

  26. Accessory Renal Arteries

  27. Accessory Renal Arteries • Can extend to upper, mid,or lower poles of kidney. • Stenosis in an accessory can result in hypertension. • Best evaluated in coronal plane with color Doppler.

  28. Accessory Renal Arteries Two Left Renal Arteries

  29. Low resistant waveform. Rapid and steep upstroke during systole. Dicrotic notch. Low resistant runoff during diastole. The Normal Renal Waveform

  30. The Normal Renal Waveform

  31. Diagnostic Criteria Protocol Example of normal Exam RAS Exam

  32. Color Doppler non-visualization Peak Systolic Velocity RAR Acceleration time Acceleration Index End Diastolic Ratios Tardus Parvus Diagnostic Criteria

  33. Diagnostic Criteria

  34. Peak Systolic Velocity • Normal >1.8 m/sec • Low grade(1-59%)>1.8 m/sec • No post-stenotic disturbance • High grade(60-99%)>1.8 m/sec • Post-stenotic turbulence • Total occlusion - no flow

  35. Peak Systolic Velocity

  36. Remember all angles MUST be 60 degrees or less! Peak Systolic Velocity

  37. Renal-Aortic Ratio RAR = PSV renal artery PSV aorta

  38. Renal-Aortic Ratio • PSV alone may be inaccurate due to difficulty with Doppler angle insonation • RAR angle independent • Obtain aortic signal 2cm distal to SMA • Use highest main renal artery signal

  39. Renal-Aortic Ratio • Normal < 3.5 • Low grade (1-59%) < 3.5 • High grade (60-99%) > 3.5 • Total occlusion renal length < 9cm

  40. End Diastolic Ratio • Assess both parenchymal vascular resistance and disease. • Sufficient perfusion: > 0.23 • Severe parenchymal vascular disease: < 0.23

  41. Acceleration Index V AT T AI =V/ T

  42. Acceleration Index • Acceleration time: time for peak systolic velocity • Acceleration index: acceleration slope divided change in time • < 3.78 kHz/sec/MHz indicates greater than 50% stenosis.

  43. Acceleration Index • To calculate : • Place the first cursor at the beginning of systole. • Place the second cursor at the peak of systole.

  44. Acceleration Index

  45. Acceleration Time • Acceleration time: > 0.1 sec indicates greater than 50% stenosis. • Measure with sweep speed of 100 mm/sec. • Normal waveforms have steep systolic upstrokes, whereas waveforms distal to a stenosis have a more gradual upstroke and dampened systolic peak.

  46. Abnormal Doppler Findings • Peak systolic velocity ( PSV) in renal artery ( proximal, mid, or distal ) > 180 cm/sec. • Renal Artery / Aorta Ratio ( RAR), > 3.5. • Tardus-Parvus.

  47. What is Tardus-Parvus? • Tardus: delayed early systolic acceleration or upstroke • Parvus: diminished amplitude and rounding systolic peak.

  48. What is Tardus-Parvus? Delayed upstroke

  49. What is Tardus-Parvus? Rounded

  50. Tardus-Parvus • Seen in distal & segmental arteries, indicating high grade stenosis proximally. • Measured using either : • Acceleration time (normal is less than 70ms) • Acceleration Index ( normal is greater than 3/m/s square) • When present, 100% indicative of RAS, but not ALWAYS present in RAS patients