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America and the Great War

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America and the Great War

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  1. America and the Great War

  2. Intro • America took its place amongst the world’s great powers. America’s participation in World War I solidified its position, and would ultimately prove to be the beginnings of America’s dominance of the 20th century. • America established foreign policies that would be recurrent throughout American history, including a more formalized aggressive approach to the Western Hemisphere. • This time period also witnessed an expansion of the progressive ideals that were developed domestically, best highlighted through Woodrow Wilson’s ...

  3. An Era of Intervention • The Panama Canal: • Roosevelt was more active in international diplomacy than most of his ... • Roosevelt pursued a policy of intervention in ... • Aiding an independence in modern day ... Teddy wanted access to the rights to construct the… • The Roosevelt Corollary: • The United States had the right to exercise "an international police power" in the ... • Dominican Republic • Though not new, this policy would be replicated for the remainder of American history in this particular region. • Taft emphasized economic investment and loans from American banks, rather than direct ... • Dollar Diplomacy

  4. An Era of Intervention • Moral Imperialism • Wilson promised a new foreign policy that would respect Latin America's ... • Wilson's moral imperialism produced more …in Latin America than any president before or since. • Side Story…..the (continued) sad story of Haiti (LEAVE THEM ALONE!!!) • Wilson and Mexico • The Mexican Revolution began in 1911. • When civil war broke out in Mexico, Wilson ordered … to land at Vera Cruz. • Mexicans greeted the marines as … rather than as liberators.

  5. America and the Great War • War broke out in Europe in 1914. • The war dealt a severe blow to the optimism and self-confidence of ... • Neutrality and Preparedness • As war engulfed Europe, Americans found themselves ... • Wilson proclaimed American … but American … and … were soon swept into conflict. • Lusitania • By the end of 1915, Wilson embarked on a policy of "preparedness." • The Road to War • Wilson won the reelection in 1916 on the slogan "He kept us out of war." • Germany resumed ... • The Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted in 1917.

  6. America and the Great War • The Fourteen Points: • Russia pulled out of the war after the Bolshivik Revolution in 1917. • Wilson issued the … in January 1918. • They established the agenda for the … that followed the war. • When American … finally arrived in Europe, they turned the tide of battle. • The War at Home: • The Progressives' War • Some Progressives viewed the war as the possibility of reforming … along scientific lines, instilling a sense of national … and self-sacrifice, and expanding ....

  7. America and the Great War • The War at Home: • The Wartime State • The war created a national state with unprecedented … and a sharply increased presence in Americans' ... • Selective Service Act • War Industries Board • War Labor Board • The Propaganda War • The Wilson administration decided that patriotism was too important to leave to the... • The Committee on Public Information (CPI) was created. • The CPI used the Progressive language of social cooperation and expanded ... • Freedom took on new significance.

  8. America and the Great War • The War at Home: • Liberty in Wartime • Despite the administration's idealistic language of democracy and freedom, the war saw the most intense repression of … the nation had ever known. • The Espionage Act • The Espionage Act of 1917 prohibited not only spying and interfering with the draft but also "false statements" that might impede ... • Eugene V. Debs was convicted in 1918 under the Espionage Act for delivering an ... • Debs ran for president while still in prison in 1920. • Coercive Patriotism • Patriotism now meant support for the government, the war, and the American ... • The American Protective League (APL) helped the Justice Department identify … and … of the war. • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

  9. Discussion Question How was the repression of liberties during World War I different from those of the Civil War (Synthesis….kinda…not really)

  10. America and the Great War • Domestic Changes: • The Coming of Woman Suffrage • America's entry into the war threatened to tear the … apart. • Jeannette Rankin opposed war • The National Woman's Party was militantly fighting for ... • The combined efforts of women during … won them suffrage. • Nineteenth Amendment • Prohibition • The campaign to ban intoxicating liquor had a variety of supporters and gained momentum. • Like the suffrage movement, prohibitionists came to see … as their best strategy. • Eighteenth Amendment

  11. America and the Great War • Who Is an American? • The "Race Problem" • The "race problem" had become a major subject of ... • Eugenics, which studied the alleged mental characteristics of different races, gave anti-immigrant sentiment an air of ... • Americanization meant the creation of a more … national culture. • A minority of Progressives questioned Americanization efforts and insisted on respect for...

  12. America and the Great War • Who Is an American? • The Anti-German Crusade • German-Americans bore … of forced Americanization. • The use of German and expressions of German culture became targets of … • Toward Immigration Restriction • The war strengthened the conviction that certain kinds of … ought to be excluded altogether. • IQ test introduced in 1916 • Groups Apart: Mexicans and Asian-Americans • The … led to further growth of the Southwest's Mexican population. • The policies toward Asian-Americans were even more … than those against Mexicans. • Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907

  13. America and the Great War • The Continued plight of African Americans: • The Color Line • The freedoms of the Progressive era did not ... • Progressive intellectuals, social scientists, labor reformers, and suffrage advocates displayed a … to the African American condition. • Roosevelt, Wilson, and Race • Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dine with him ... • Wilson's administration imposed …in federal departments in Washington, D.C. • Birth of a Nation- Not the awesome one where Nat Turner kills slave owners

  14. America and the Great War • The Continued plight of African Americans: • W. E. B. Du Bois and the Revival of Black Protest • Du Bois tried to reconcile the contradiction between what he called "American freedom for whites and the continuing subjection of Negroes." • The Souls of Black Folk (1903) • In some ways, Du Bois was a typical … who believed that investigation, exposure, and … would lead to solutions for social problems. • The Niagara movement sought to reinvigorate the ... • Du Bois was a cofounder of the NAACP. • Bailey v. Alabama (1911) • Closing Ranks • Most black leaders saw American participation in the war as an opportunity to make real the... • During World War I, "closing ranks" did not bring significant gains.

  15. America and the Great War • The Continued plight of African Americans: • The Great Migration • The war opened thousands of industrial jobs to black laborers for the first time, inspiring a large-scale … from the South to the North. • Half a million blacks migrated north. • Many motives sustained the Great Migration. • Racial Violence, North and South • Dozens of blacks were killed during a 1917 riot in East St. Louis, Missouri. • Violence was ... • The Rise of Garveyism • Marcus Garvey launched a ... • Freedom for Garveyites meant national ...

  16. The Post War World • Upheaval in America • In the United States, 1919 also witnessed ... • In 1919, how many? workers engaged in strikes-the greatest wave of labor unrest in ... • The wartime rhetoric of economic democracy and freedom helped to inspire the era's greatest ... • Striking for union recognition, higher wages, and an eight-hour day • Steel magnates launched a concerted ... • Propaganda campaign associated the strikers with the IWW

  17. The Post War World • The Red Scare • This was a short-lived but intense period of political intolerance inspired by the postwar strike wave and the social tensions and fears generated by the ... • In November 1919 and January 1920, Attorney General Palmer dispatched federal agents to raid the offices of … and … organizations throughout the country. • Wilson at Versailles • The … did accomplish some of Wilson's goals. • The Versailles Treaty was a harsh document that all but guaranteed … in Europe.

  18. The Post War World • The Wilsonian Moment • Wilson's idea that government must rest on the … and his belief in "equality of nations" reverberated across the globe, especially among oppressed minorities and … seeking independence. • Wilson's language of self-determination raised … for many peoples. • The British and French had no intention of applying the principle of self-determination to their ... • Ottoman empire and the League of Nations "mandates"

  19. The Post War World • The Seeds of Wars to Come • German … over the terms of the peace treaty helped to fuel the rise of Adolf Hitler. • A new anti-Western nationalism and anticolonial nationalism emerged in ... • The Treaty Debate • Wilson viewed the new League of Nations as the war's ... • Opponents viewed the league as … designed to deprive the country of its ... • The war to make the world safe for democracy failed.

  20. Conclusion • Europe devastated • America largely shielded from War’s consequences. Helps to usher in American …they provide loans to European countries, their economy is still booming. • There appeared to be a new international … but the leading powers were still too narrow minded to foresee the storm (see what I did there) looming on the horizon.