The Great War The United States in WWI
Bell Ringer: • Do you think that it would have been possible for the US to remain neutral in WWI? • Why or why not?
Four Main Causes of World War I • M-A-N-I-A • Militarism • Alliance System • Nationalism • Imperialism • Assassination
Militarism • Nations begin to build up their militaries • Usually in response to what other nations were doing • “Keeping up with the Jones’s”
Alliance System • Nations make agreements to protect each other in case they are attacked
Nationalism • Loyalty to your nation, belief that your nation is the best and strongest
Imperialism • Countries in Europe (Just like in the US) desire more land, wealth and colonies. Nations compete to see who can get the most colonies
Assassination • Sparking Event • (June 28, 1914) • The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife Sofia by a member of the Black Hand
The War Begins The United States is neutral for the first three years of the war and many Americans want to stay out of the war.
Why did the US enter the war • Submarine Warfare — Germans warn that all ships entering the waters around the British Isles are subjected to be sunk German Unterseeboot (U-Boat)
Lusitania • Lusitania(May 1915) passenger ship sunk by German U-boat • May have been carrying ammunition as well as passengers -- passengers warned not to travel on Lusitania • Wilson protests -- nothing happened
The Final Straw • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (Jan. 1917) • Early January 1917 -- Germany decided to pursue “unrestricted submarine warfare” • Tell Wilson on January 31st, he cuts off diplomatic ties
The Final Straw • Zimmerman Telegraph (March 1, 1917) • Coded message from Germany to Mexico. • Says if Mexico attacks US, Germany will help Mexico take back Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. • British intercepted, decoded and sent to the US
The Final Straw • Russian Revolution (March 15, 1917) • Czar Nicholas II of Russia is toppled from power and Russia is taken over by a republican government (no communists yet) Russia not a monarchy -- now it is a war between democracy & autocratic rule
America Enters the War • Wilson asks Congress for a declaration of war. • What impact did US soldiers have on the war? • America’s military resources of soldiers and war materials tipped the balance of the war and led to Germany’s defeat.
Preparing for war • Selective Service Act: institutes nationwide conscription/draft. • U.S. armed forces: from 200,000 to nearly 5 million!
Persuading for war • Wilson creates the Committee on Public Information (CPI) to influence public opinion to support the war effort. • George Creel is chairman.
The U.S. Food Administration • Headed by Herbert Hoover; advised Americans to save certain foods for export to supply the Allied war effort.
“The 4 Minute Men” • Volunteer Army of 75,000, organized by the Creel’s CPI, these men gave patriotic, pro-war speeches before stages and movie shows nationwide.
Repression on the Home front • The Espionage Act: imprisonment and fine for anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment, or causing insubordination in the armed forces.(1917) • The Sedition Act: outlawed any disloyal, profane, or abusive language intended to cause contempt, scorn, or disrepute to the government, Constitution, or flag.(1918)
Women Working in Factories A million women entered the American workforce during World War I. In this factory, women of all ages are packing hand grenade parts to be shipped overseas.
The Great Migration • The Great Migration was the migration of thousands of African-Americans from the South to the North. African Americans were looking to escape in the South and felt they could seek out life in the North
Post-war home front:Disappointment • African Americans • Women • Labor Unions • Immigrants But the U.S. economy is growing and international influence/power is stronger…
Following the War • The Paris Peace Conference and the Fourteen Points • Fourteen Points are Wilson’s plan to eliminate the causes of war. He called for: • Self-determination • Freedom of the seas • League of Nations • Mandate system • French and English insisted on punishment of Germany.
Treaty of Versailles • Treaty of Versailles • Germany accepted responsibility for starting the war : “war guilt clause” • Had to pay reparationsto pay for war damages in other countries • A League of Nations was created to solve disputes and prevent future wars. • National boundaries were redrawn, creating many new nations.
US stance on the Treaty • The United States did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles • Did not like the League of Nations because they objected to US foreign policy being made by an international organization • Did not want to be involved in European Affairs