The Great War By: Emillie Engram, Melissa Lytle, and Shannon Hall
The Road to War: While explaining the road to War World 1 this document will talk about: • Conscription • Mobilization • Archduke Francis Ferdinand • Emperor William II • Czar Nicholas II • Triple Alliance • Triple Entente • Militarism
Conscription • Who took practiced conscription during the time of World War I? • Europe • When exactly did conscription occur during this time? • Between 1890 and 1914 • What was conscription? • Conscription was a military draft which made European armies double in size. • Why did countries choose to practice conscription? • European countries felt the need to become more powerful because of tensions tightening between them. • What was the significance of conscription during this time? • Conscription, which is an act of militarism, cause Military leaders to receive more power and gave countries the means to go to war.
Mobilization • When did mobilization occur? • 1914 • What is mobilization? • Mobilization is a process of assembling troops and supplies. During this time, mobilization was considered an act of war. • Who was involved with mobilization? • Czar Nicholas of Russia ordered mobilization of the Russian armies. • Why did mobilization occur? • Russia practiced mobilization to prepare for war against Austria-Hungary and Germany. • What was the significance of Russia practicing mobilization? • The mobilization of Russia caused Germany to declare war on Russia.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand • Who is Archduke Francis Ferdinand? • He was the heir of the throne in Austria-Hungary. • What happened to him? • The Archduke was victim of the black hand, a terrorist organization of Serbia, who shot him and his wife to death. • When did this happen? • 1914 • Where did this happen? • Sarajevo Bosnia • Why did this happen? • Tension between Serbia and Austria-Hungary and political reasons. • What significance did this act hold to War World I? • This act of terrorism led Austria-Hungary to seek German allies and to declare war on Serbia.
Emperor William II • Who is Emperor William II? • He was the Emperor of Germany. • What did he do? • Emperor William was the person to declare that Austria-Hungary had Germany’s “full-support” or, in other words, declared the alliance between Austria-Hungary and Germany. • When did this happen? • 1914 • What significance did he have according to War World 1? • The alliance he declared gave Austria-Hungary the security to declare war on Serbia. Therefore, he jump started the war.
Czar Nicholas II • Who is Czar Nicholas II? • Ruler of Russia • What did he do? • Czar Nicholas II was the man who ordered mobilization of Russian armies against Austria-Hungary. • When did this occur? • July 28-29, 1914. • Why did he do this? • He ordered mobilization against Austria-Hungary because Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia who were allies with Russia. • What was the significance of this act according to the war? • Czar Nicholas knew that Germany would consider this an act of war which caused Germany to declare war on Russia.
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente • Who did the Triple Alliance consist of? • Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy • Who did the Triple Entente consist of? • France, Great Britain, Russia • When did the Triple Alliance form? • 1882 • When did the Triple Entente form? • 1907 • What were these alliances? • They were two loose alliances formed against each other. • Why did the countries split into these two alliances? • Rivalries over colonies and trade caused the division of Europe into these two alliances. Some ethnic groups, however, didn’t join this alliances and therefore were left without nations such as the Slavic minorities in the Balkans, the Hapsburg empire, and the Irish who were in the British empire, and the Poles who were in the Russian Emprie. • What was the significance of the alliances? • The Tensions formed between the alliances led to War World 1.
Map of the Two Alliances Dark purple and light purple represents the Triple Entente. Dark green and light green represents the Triple Alliance.
Militarism • Who practiced militarism? • Europe • What was militarism? • Militarism was aggressive preparation for war that European countries practiced which caused their armies to grow. • When was this practiced? • Before 1914 • Why did European countries practice this? • Conflicts and tensions heightened between European nations which resulted in militarism and conscription. • What significance did this have in War World 1? • The preparations of these armies led to World War 1 because it gave the means for the countries to go to war.
The War • While Explaining WWI this document will talk about and explain the importance of: • Propaganda • Trench Warfare • Total War • Planned Economies • Lawrence of Arabia • Admiral Holtzendorff • Battle of Marne • Battle of Tannenberg • Battle at the Masurian Lakes • Battle of Verdun • Battle at Gallipoli • Lusitania • Zimmerman Telegram
Propaganda • What is this? • These were ideas spread around to influence public opinions or to go against a cause. It is a method that the government used to create enthusiasm for the war also. • When did this occur? • August 1914 • Where did this take place? • In Europe • Who used propaganda? • The European government • What is the significance of using propaganda? • They used it because before the wars it stirred up national hatreds.
Trench Warfare • What was Trench Warfare? • It’s were soldiers would get in ditches, protected by barbed wire and fight from during war. Life in the trenches wasn’t exactly enjoyable, soldiers produced their own humor magazines, for example, the B.E.F. Times. • When did this begin to take place? • 1914-1916 • Where did soldiers use trench warfare? • Germany and France • Why did they use trench warfare? • They used it because digging trenches was a safe way to keep out of harm in war, but it also made it impossible to battle. • What was the Significance of trench warfare? • It caused many battles to become stale mates and wasted a lot of time.
War of Attrition • What was the War of Attrition? • It was a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy loses. • Where did this war take place? • Europe • When did it take place? • 1916 • Why was it called this? • It was called war of attrition because they lost millions of people. • What was the significance of the war? • It’s what WWI turned into after losing all those men, due to the ongoing attacks.
Total War • What was the Total War? • A war where the countries drafts all the people and collects all resources that they can. • When did this war take place? • Around 1916 • Where did it take place? • Europe • Why did the Total War occur? • The war turned into a Total war because the countries expected the war to be short so they weren’t prepared for long term war, when their supplies ran out, total war was their only option. • What was the significance of the war? • WWI turned into a Total War which affected the home front and government a lot. It affected women too because with the absence of men they were expected to take over more jobs and help out with the war effort. They received the rights to new jobs, to vote, and the right to apartments.
Planned Economies • What was planned economies? • An economy controlled by the government, for example, when European governments decided price of goods, wages of the people, and the rent people had to pay. They Also Rationed food and materials and controlled imports, exports, transportation and industries. • Where/ Who used planned economies? • Europe • When did these take place? • During WWI • Why were these used? • Planned economies were set up as a result of Total War and the high demands of the war. • What was the significance of planned economies? • The planned economies that the government set up had a large impact on the civilians at home and caused their support of the war to dis
Lawrence of Arabia • Who is Lawrence of Arabia? • He was a British officer in Arabia. • What did he do? • He encourages the Arab princes to revolt against the Ottoman forces who controlled them. • When did he do this? • 1917 • Why did he do this? • Lawrence did this because it led to the fall of the Ottoman Empire which allowed Britain to mobilize in the Middle East. • What is the significance of Lawrence? • Since the middle east was now involved with the war, Lawrence of Arabia was a key player in the widening of the war.
Admiral Holtzendorff • Who was Admiral Holtzendorff • A German Naval Officer • When was this? • 1917 • What did he do? • When the emperor was concerned about the United States he falsely assumed the Emperor “I give your majesty my word as an officer that not one American will land on the continent.” • Why did he do this? • He gave the Emperor his assurance to convince him to break the dead lock in the war by resuming submarine warfare. • What was his significance? • Since Admiral Holtzendorff convinced the Emperor to use submarine warfare, the United States entered the war.
Battle of the Marne • Who was involved in this battle? • The French and the Germans • Where did this battle occur? • This battle occurred near Paris, where the Germans were passing through. • When did this battle take place? • The Battle of the Marne began in 1914 and lasted four years. • What happened in this battle? • This battle was an attack from the French (who arrived in taxicabs) that turned into a stalemate due to the strategy of using trenches. • Why did this battle occur? • The Schlieffen Plan included that the Germans must move through France, passing Paris. This plan would enable them to surround the French army, which is why the French had to attack before they could. • Why is this battle significant to WWI? • This battle is significant because people believed that the war would only last for a few weeks while this battle alone lasted 4 years. This map shows the Schlieffen Plan, the Germans plan to sweep by Paris is illustrated in red arrows.
Battle of Tannenberg • Who was involved in this battle? • Russia and Germany. • Where did this battle take place? • Germany • When did this battle occur? • 1914 • What happened during this battle? • Russia invaded German ground only to be surrounded and defeated by German forces. • What significance did this battle hold? • This battle was significant because the Germans, who thought of Russia as their greatest threat, won this battle so that Russia was no longer a threat.
Battle at the Masurian Lakes • Who fought in this battle? • The Russians and the Germans • When did this battle occur? • September 1914 • Where did this battle occur? • Near the Masurian Lakes in Germany. • What happened in this battle? • In this battle the Germans pushed the opposing Russians back across the front and eventually pushed them out of Germany. • Why did the battle happen? • The Russians were a great threat to Germany and if they didn’t attack then, then the Russians would gain advantage over the Germans. • What is the significance of this battle? • This battle messed up Russian’s plan in the war until the next spring. Soldiers at Masurian Lake during the war.
Battle of Verdun • Where did this battle happen? • Verdun-sur-meuse, France • When did this battle occur? • February 21 to December 19, 1916. • Who was involved in this battle? • The Germans and the French • What was the Battle of Verdun? • One of the longest and most gruesome battles of World War 1. By the end of the battle, the French pushed the Germans back to their starting positions, the Germans also lost one of their forts. • Why did this battle occur? • Since a stalemate was developed during 1914 due to trench warfare, all attempts to breakthrough by the Germans failed. Erich von Falkenhan decided to do a bold attack on the French since he believed they could be defeated if they suffered enough casualties and the German forces outnumbered the French greatly.
Battle of Gallipoli • Who was involved with this battle? • The British and the French against the Ottoman Empire. • Where did this battle occur? • Istanbul • When did this battle occur? • April 1915 to January 1916. • What happened at this battle? • The British and the French attempted to capture Istanbul, but failed. • Why did this battle occur? • The Allies needed a new front and by defeating the Ottoman Empire, they hoped that Bulgaria and Greece would join the war too.
Lusitania • Who? • British • Where? • North Atlantic • When did it sink? • May 7, 1915 • What was the Lusitania? • The Lusitania was a British luxury liner, which the German used unrestricted submarine warfare to attack and sink. • Why? • Britain had set up a naval blockade of Germany which enabled Germany to receive supplies by sea so they sunk liners to break the blockade and to enforce their own blockade on Britain. • What was the significance of the Lusitania being sunk? • Its attack was one of the things that led the United States to join the war since there were over a hundred Americans on the Lusitania when it sunk. The Lusitania liner
Zimmerman Telegram • Who? • German Foreign Secretary, Arthur Zimmerman • Where? • Germany to Mexico • When? • 1917 • What? • The Zimmerman Telegram was an encrypted telegram sent from Germany to Mexico asking to form an alliance opposing the United States, the British deciphered the telegram and presented it to President Woodrow Wilson. • Why? • The United States remained neutral, but if they entered the wary they would be a great threat to the Germans. • What significance does the telegram have? • The discovery of this telegram lead the United States to join the war almost directly.
The Russian Revolution • While explaining the Russian Revolution, this project will talk about: • Soviets • War Communism • Grigori Rasputin • Alexander Kerensky • Czar Nicholas II • Bolsheviks • Lenin • Trotsky • Petrograd • Ukraine • Siberia • Brest Litovsk
Soviets • What? • This council was made of representatives from the workers and soldiers. • When? • March 1917 • Where? • Petrograd, Russia • Who? • Russians • Significance? • They were in army units, factory towns, and rural areas. They mostly consisted of socialists. The Soviets represented the interests of the lower class. They wanted to gain power. Propaganda poster for Soviet Union
War Communism • What? • War Communism was when the government controlled banks and most of the industries. The government seized grain from peasants and controlled centralization of State administration under communist control. • When? • 1918-1921 • Where/who? • Russia • Significance? • The communist used War Communism to ensure supplies for the Red Army, and to take control of many things. Also, the communist had an advantage over the white army because they had the Allied forces fighting for them too.
Causes of the Russian Revolution • Lack of responsible military leaders • Incapability to produce weapons for the military which caused the Russian army to send men into battle with nothing but their hands. • Nicholas II taking personally taking charge of military forces despite his inexperience in training and war. • The lack of preparation for the war that caused the result of great loss of soldiers. Dead Russian Soldiers
Steps to Complete Communism Control • The steps that lead to full communist control of Russia in 1921 were: • War Communism was used to strengthen the Red Army • Communist created the Cheka to create a “Red Terror” to scare the regime of the Communist, and it is believed that fear is equal to respect. • The presence of the Allie forces, who were against the communist, in the country made the support of communism seem like a patriotic act. Cheka Emblem
Grigori Rasputin • Who? • An uneducated Siberian Peasant. • When? • Around 1916 • Where? • Russia • What did he do? • He claimed himself to be a holy man and was able to convince Alexandria, Czar Nicholas’ wife, that he was. • Why? • She believed him because he seemed to be able to stop the bleeding of her son Alexis who had hemophilia which enables the blood to clot. • Significance? • He was important behind the throne since Alexandria believed he was holy and she made the decisions since Czar Nicholas II was gone at war. Propaganda Poster symbolizing the way Grigori Rasputin influenced Russian rule.
Alexander Kerensky • What? • He was head of the provisional government after Czar Nicholas stepped down from his position. He decided to carry on the war even after he did so. • Why? • He made this decision because he thought it would sustain Russia’s honor. • When? • March 12, 1917 • Where? • Russia • Significance? • His decision was significant because it was considered a “major blunder”. The civilians wanted to end the war who were tired of dealing with the effects the war had.
Czar Nicholas II • Who? • Ruler of Russia • What did he do during the Russian Revolution? • During the Russian Revolution he made many decisions that caused his people to turn against him. He made the insensitive command that the troops were to use violence (such as shooting) to break up the strikes against the Autocracy. Instead of listening to him, they joined the strike because they disagreed with his inhumane order. He also tried to shut down the Duma and in return, they established the provisional government who urged him to give up his position. • Why? • He tried to shut down the strike and the Duma because he knew they didn’t agree with his ideas and because they didn’t want him in office. • What was the significance of his decisions? • The significance of his decisions was that they led to the downfall of his role in the Russian government which ended the Romanov dynasty as well. • When did he step down from his position? • March 15, 1917
Bolsheviks • What were Bolsheviks? • They were a group that wanted to destroy the capitalist system. The Bolsheviks started as a small faction of Marxist party called the Russian Social Democrats. They were lead by Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov. • When? • 1917-1921 • Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks? • V.I.Lenin • Where did they start and end up during their act? • Russia • What was the significance of the Bolsheviks? • They tried to gain power, and overthrow the provisional government. The Bolsheviks promised an end to the war, and that all the peasants would get their land back. Bolsheviks marching throughout Russia
V. I. Lenin • What was the role of V. I. Lenin? • He was the leader of the Bolsheviks, who believed that only violent revolution could destroy the capitalist system. • When…? • 1900-1917 • Where did he try and seize power? • Russia • Why did he want to gain power? • He wanted the Bolsheviks to work toward gaining control of these groups and then use them to overthrow the provincial government? • What was the significance of V. I. Lenin? • He tried to conquer the government, for the peace of his people. The picture on the left is a picture of V. I. Lenin and the one on the right is V. I. Lenin talking to the Bolsheviks.
Leon Trotsky • What did he do? • He was responsible for making the Red Army well disciplined so that the Communists won the civil war. • Why was he responsible? • Since he was a commissar of war, he “reinstated the draft” and expected extreme discipline. If soldiers disobeyed him, they were exterminated on the spot. • When did the Civil war occur? • 1918 to 1920. • Where did this Civil war occur? • Russia • What the significance of Leon Trotsky being part of the Civil war? • His training led to the largely successful Communist defeat of the other side of the Civil war in Russia. Propaganda Poster of Leon Trotsky
Petrograd • What and where was Petrograd? • A city in Russia, also known as Saint Petersburg, where a collection of revolts that demanded “Peace and Bread” and the fall of the Autocracy from women. • Who? • The women of Petrograd, the government, and Czar Nicholas • When? • 1917 • Why did the strikes break out here? • The government rationed their food, due to the war, and the price of break increased greatly. The women had to wait in line for long periods of time which conflicted with their schedules since they worked 12 hours a day. • What significance did Petrograd hold? • Petrograd is where the strikes that led to the soldiers to loose support in Czar Nicholas which led to him stepping down from his position.
Ukraine • Who? • V.I. Lenin and Germany • What? • Ukraine was one of the countries given up when Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks, signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany. • When did this happen? • 1918 • Where did this occur? • Russia • Why where they given up? • They were given up because due to the socialist revolution, the Ukraine and the other countries that were given up, didn’t matter in V.I. Lenin’s eyes. Also, Lenin promised peace to the Russians. • What was the significance? • The significance of Ukraine being given up is that it ended the fighting between Germany and Russia, even though they Russia still didn’t have peace due to the civil warfare.
Siberia • What happened in Siberia? • The Communist’s first threat was from Siberia. From Siberia the white force, an anti-communist force, attacked the Communist army (the red army) • Who was involved? • Russia (the Red Force and the White Force) • When did this happen? • 1918 through 1921 is when the fighting occurred. • Where? • Russia • Why? • Groups against Communism joined the Allies which resulted in the Allies sending troops which gave the anti-communist the means to go into battle. • What was the significance of the fighting in Siberia? • It was the first threat that lead to the fighting in the civil war.
Brest Litovsk • What was the Brest Litovsk? • A peace treaty signed by Lenin with Germany. It gave up Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces to Germany. • When was it signed? • March 3, 1918 • Where? • Russia • Why? • Lenin gave away his territories to Germany because he wanted peace. • What was the significance of this treaty? • The significance of this treaty is that it made peace between a country and their biggest threat. It offered safety and peace for V.I. Lenin and his people. On this map, the land that the Central Powers occupied after the treaty was signed is highlighted in pink.
The End of the War • While explaining the end of the war, this document will talk about: • Armiciste • Reparation • Mandate • Erich von Ludendorff • Friedrich Ebert • David Lloyd George • Georges Clemenceau • Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points • Second Battle of the Marne
Armistice • Who created the Armistice? • The Germany government • Where was it created? • Germany • When was it created? • November 11, 1918 • What was the Armistice? • The Armistice was an agreement that Germany signed to end the fighting. • Why did Germany sign this treaty? • Germany started to act against and control civilian and military offices, this caused William II to leave the country. With a new democratic republic, Germany agreed to sign the truce. • What was the significance of the passing of this treaty? • The significance of this treaty is that it ended the war in Germany, which had huge affect on Germany for obvious reasons. Newspaper article announcing the signing of the armistice
Reparations • Who ordered reparations? • George Clemenceau of France • Where did he order them from? • Germany • When? • 1918 • What where reparations? • Reparations were payments that George Clemenceau wanted paid to France from Germany. Germany agreed to pay the allies reparations in the Treaty of Versailles. • Why? • France wanted revenge against Germany for attacking them, also the payments protected France from future German “aggressions”. • What was the significance of the reparations? • The reparations were result of the end of the war and the payments were example of how France made the Germans pay for the war.
Erich von Ludendorff • What did he do? • He made the rash decision to attack American troops. • Where was he from? • Germany • Who was he? • He was a Germany military leader. • When did he make this decision? • March 1918 • Why did he make this decision? • He did this in attempt to break the stale mate between Germany and the United States. • What was the significance of Ludendorff? • At the Second Battle of the Marne the battle ended and the German leaders where eventually informed from Ludendorff that they had lost and that the war was coming to an end.
Friedrich Ebert • Who was Friedrich Ebert? • He was the leader of the Social Democrats • What did the Social Democrats do under his rule? • A democratic republic was created. • Where? • Germany • When? • November 1918 • Why? • He created the democratic republic because William II left therefore a new government had to be created. • What was the significance of Ebert creating this form of government? • The new government that Social Democrats helped create signed an armistice that ended the fighting in Germany. Friedrich Ebert Symbol of Social Democracy
David Lloyd George • Who was David Lloyd George? • He was the Prime Minister of Great Britain • What did he do? • He wanted revenge on the Germans. • Why did he want this? • He wanted revenge on the Germans because he believed that it was their fault that World War 1 occurred. • When did all of this happen? • December 1918 • Where? • Great Britain • What was the significance of David Lloyd George? • He made important decisions at the Paris Peace Conference and his opinions of the Germans affected them.
Georges Clemenceau • Who was Georges Clemenceau? • He was the Premier of France or the French Statesman. • What did he do? • He called upon revenge on Germany, he wanted all the weapons removed from Germany and vast payments, reparations, paid to France, and a state between France and Germany. • Where was he? • France • When? • 1917-1918 • What was the significance of Clemenceau and his actions? • His influence lead to a compromise that allowed the guarantee of France’s security. Clemenceau and other Allie leaders at the Versailles Peace Conference (third from the left)
Second Battle of the Marne • When did this battle occur? • July 1918 • What happened in result of this battle? • The Germans attacked but the France’s counter-attack “overwhelmed” the German’s and they lost the battle and suffered from a large amount of casualties. • Why did this battle occur? • Erich Ludendorff thought that attack against the French would result in a victory. • What was the significance of this battle? • The defeat of the Germans stopped the invasion of Flanders by the Germans.
Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points • Who? • Woodrow Wilson, the United States President. • What was this? • The Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points was a peace treaty that represented Wilson’s idea of independence and equality between nations and states, unlike the Treaty of Versailles which included the idea of revenge and punishment against those who lost the war. • When was it developed? • 1918 • Why was this treaty created? • The treaty was created to reduce the use of military and weapons and to ensure the rights of the people to have their own nation. Woodrow Wilson
The Impact of the Great War • Mortality Rates • Monetary Costs • Innovations • Painting • Poetry and Writing • Enviroment • Pacifism