A New World Power • Progressive Presidents, Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrow Wilson, had used a “progressive diplomacy” to expand America’s influence across the world in places such as Asia, Mexico, and, The Caribbean. • By 1917 The U.S. had entered WWI and had secured its place on the globe as a world power.
Roosevelt’s Big Stick • Roosevelt left a strong imprint on the Nation’s foreign policy. • Roosevelt brought the “Big Stick” approach to disputes in the Caribbean. • His idea was to ask nicely, then use violence when necessary. • The Panama Canal was one of Roosevelt’s Biggest achievements.
Roosevelt Expands • Became Police of the America’s • Roosevelt Corollary • Expanded Monroe Doctrine • Used to Justify any involvement with American countries. • Said U.S. would deal with any debt to Europe • Open Door policy under his term. • Equal trade Rights for all countries in China
President Taft Steps up to the plate • Taft was good friend of Roosevelt. • Changes from Big Stick policy to Dollar Diplomacy. • Believed that using lots of money was the best way. • Doubled amount of spending in south American Countries. • Effectively closed the open door policy in China over Railroads.
President Wilson’s Term • Had no experience in diplomacy, but brought fundamental principals to foreign affairs. • Extended our own Open Door policy • Believe U.S, with its superior industry, could achieve supremacy in world commerce • Didn’t support new Mexican government because he didn’t believe it was one over law. • After hearing of Mexican Leader killed by his chief lieutenant. • Essentially ignored Mexico to turn attention on the War started in Europe.
Trouble with “Pancho” • U.S. recognized Carranza as Mexican leader to Focus on Europe • Other leader tried to start crisis in U.S. • Wilson Sent force of 15,000 to capture him. • This opened tensions with Mexico and nearly started a war. • A Mexican War would have kept us out of the “Great war” • Germany wanted this to keep us out.
Wilson’s Patriotic Ideas • Wilson believed America could lead the world to peace and establish an international system of authority. • Had League of Nations Idea, this failed, but later the creation of the UN would expand on this. • Believed Militarism and Imperialism were things of the past • Capitalist Development, democracy, and free trade, were the gateways to the future.
The Great War By: Lindsey Blackwell, Alex Fielding, Erica Wilson, and Aaron Daniel
The Guns of August • The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. • The Triple Entente (Allies) consisted of Great Britain, France, and Russia. • War caused by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand • The actual killer was a Serbian who believed the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia ought to be annexed to neighboring Serbia. • By August,both sides had written and given declarations of war. • Cause for casualties: • Germany’s invasion of Belgium • New weapons tanks and machine guns • Trench warfare This picture is property of Mr. Tolliver
American Neutrality • Wilson first wanted to stay neutral • People were “hyphenated” and wanted War • The people were broken up, no clear side. • Both sides of the war had a propaganda war on US soil. • Britain said that Germans were killing everyone. • Germans said that Russia wanted to expand and France wanted revenge on Germany • Britain imposed a blockade on all shipping to Germany • Could’ve asked them to leave, but we just started trading with the English • Economic BOOM as a result. • By then, America was pretty much on The Allies side.
Preparedness and Peace • The Germans hoped to defeat the Allies with one, swift, stroke. They declared the war zone would be the water around the British Isles • They declared unlimited submarine warfare. This is when submarines attacked any type of ship without warning. • German U-boat sank Lusitania near Ireland • 128 Americans aboard smuggling war materials were killed • This set off Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to resign • US threatened to end diplomatic relations with Germany because of this act • US started to prepare for war just in case • During the election of 1915 Wilson ran with the slogan “He Kept Us Out of War” With this as his slogan, he won a narrow win against Republican Charles Evan Hughes
Safe for Democracy • Wilson armed all US merchant ships. • Germany sank 7 of them. • President Wilson decided that they must go to war. • At this moment, they intercepted a coded message from Arthur Zimmermann to the German ambassador from Mexico proposing an alliance between Mexico and Germany. • Said that if Mexico attacked America, they would get their lost lands back. • Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war • He made a speech in which he said that “neutrality was no longer feasible or desirable.” • Congress declared War on Germanyin April 6, 1917
Questions • Why didn’t the US decide to attack the British blockade blocking all shipping to Germany? What affect did this have on Germany’s outlook of America? • Why did President Wilson make preparations for war?
Group 3 Marcus Schaeffer, Taylor Thrasher, Christian Hensley, Ryan Wilkerson
American Mobilization Group #3 Marcus Schaeffer, Taylor Thrasher, Christian Hensley, Ryan Wilkerson
Getting into the war • In 1917, President Woodrow Wilson signed the declaration of war to enter into the Great War, and allied with the Ally powers (Britain, France, Russia). The people of the United States were mostly enthusiastic about the choice to enter the war. But people in Wilson’s own administration needed more convincing, and so efforts were made to immediately mobilize the military, so that the country could be unified.
Selling the war • After the declaration of war was signed, President Wilson created the Committee on Public Information (CPI), which was in charge of organizing public opinion. • The CPI gave Americans very negative connotations with Germans and slandered everything that was German. Germans would often be depicted as Huns in posters, making them bestial. • The CPI even urged Americans with different heritage to abandon their old beliefs and cultures. • The civilian chairman of this organization was George Creel. Creel changed the CPI from something that organized government news, into something that sold the war to the American people. • The CPI even called on major movie stars to sell war bonds at huge rallies, all promoting the war.
Fading Opposition to War • Opposition to the war began to fade away as people began to realize that the war may promote positive social changes. • Even the influential John Dewey believed that the U.S. should enter the war. • The Women’s Peace Party was established in 1915, but did not last long when the leaders of the organization began to realize the positive effects the war would hold. Because of the war, women may finally have the chance to obtain voting rights.
“You’re in the army now” • At the beginning of the war, not enough U.S. citizens were volunteering because many people still opposed the war. This brought about the Selective Service Act, which established the draft. • Over 10 million people signed up for the draft during the war. • The Selective Service Act also eliminated the option to “buy out” like citizens could do during the Civil War. It also included an intelligence test for people after the war.
Racism in the Military • African Americans were allowed to serve in the military during the war, but they were not allowed to serve in the Coast Guard or Marines. • The jobs they were given in the military were usually low jobs like cooks and laundrymen. • African Americans continued to be treated badly in the United States. But African Americans were treated equally in France, and the French military and some received Medals of Bravery. But even after their valiant efforts in the war, they faced bad treatment when they returned to the U.S.
Americans in Battle • American Expedition Force (AEF) was a military regiment led by John J. Pershing. The AEF units were in the front lines of the war in 1918. In June of 1918, 70,000 AEF soldiers helped the French military stop Germans in the battles of Chateua-Thierry and Belleau Wood. • During the Great War, frontal assaults were usually the method of battle. But with the invention of long-range artillery and machine guns, this style of war was obsolete. • “Doughboys” were soldiers that joined the military for money. General Pershing had over a million soldiers in his army because of all the doughboys that joined the war effort. • Over 50,000 Americans were killed in battle during the Great War. And over 200,000 Americans were wounded in battle.
Over Here Shelby Coyne, Natalie Kelly, Tyelar Motsinger, Emilee Wood
War Industries Board • War Industries Board - Established in 1917 by President Wilson as a clearinghouse for industrial mobilization to support the war effort. • Led by Bernard M. Baruch • Expanded the regulatory power of the federal government • Head over the conversion of industrial plants to wartime needs and manufacturer of war materials • Balanced price controls against war profits • Eventually handled 3,000 contracts worth $14.5 billion with businesses
Food and Fuel Act • August 1917 - Congress passed Food and Fuel Act • Regulated the production and distribution of the food and fuel necessary for war effort • Led by Herbert Hoover (Engineer) • Hoover imposed price controls on certain agricultural commodities, like sugar, pork, and wheat. • Hoover stopped imposing mandatory food rationing and preferring to rely on persuasion, high prices, and voluntary controls • Hoover urged Americans “Go back to simple food, simple clothes, and simple pleasures.” • Raised the purchase price of grain so farmers could increase production • “Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays, Porkless Thursdays”
Liberty Bonds • War financing came from government borrowing, in the form of Liberty Bonds sold to the American public • Bond drives raised a total of $23 billion for the war effort • Federal Reserve Banks expanded the money supply • Federal debt jumped from $1 billion in 1915 to $2 billion in 1920
Increased workforce • Increased farm production and acreage • The most important and long lasting economic legacy was the organizational shift toward corporatism in American business • War agencies used both private and public power - legal authority, voluntarism - to hammer out and enforce agreements
Expansion of the economy, army mobilization, and a decline in immigration from Europe caused a growing wartime labor shortage • Trade Unions, like the American Federation of Labor, experienced a rise in membership • The National War Labor Board guaranteed the rights of unions to organize and bargain collectively • Labor unions sharply increased their memberships • Samuel Gompers (President of the AFL), was the leading spokesman for the nation’s trade union movement • AFL reached 2 million memberships in 1914 • Most members skilled, white males, organized in highly selective crafts in trades, railroads, and coal mines.
In 1918, President Wilson appointed Gomper’s to the National War Labor Board (NWLB) • During 1917, thousands of strikes occurred because of issues with wages • The NWLB cochaired by Labor Attorney Frank Walsh and former President William H. Taft acted as a supreme court for labor to prevent disputes and disruptions on production. • Resulted in improved wages and working hours
Wartime conditions meant severe disruptions and discomfort for American’s workers • Overcrowding, rapid workforce turnover, high inflation rates • Wartime labor eased restrictions against the movement of Mexicans into the United States • Employers complained of shortage of work and insisted they depend on unskilled Mexican labor • In 1917, the Department of Labor suspended the immigration law for the duration of the war, and negotiated an agreement with the Mexican government permitting some 35,000 Mexican contract laborers to enter the United States • Espionage Act - Law whose vague prohibition against obstructing the nation’s war effort was used to crush dissent and criticism during WW1.
For women, war meant a chance to switch from low paying jobs to higher paying jobs • Million of women joined the labor force for the first time • Marked the first time women were mobilized directly into the armed forces • Over 16,000 women served overseas in France • 12,000 women served stateside in the navy and U.S. Marine Corps • Tens of thousands were employed in army offices and hospitals • In response to women employment, the labor department created Women in Industry Service • Directed by Mary Van Kleek • Advised employees on using female labor and formulated general standards for the treatment of women workers • First attempt by the federal government to improve working conditions for women • Eight-hour day, equal pay and equal work, minimum wage, prohibition of night work, provisions of rest periods, meal breaks, and restroom facilities. • The Women’s Bureau in the Labor Department continued the WIS wartime program of education and investigation through the postwar years
Woman Suffrage – An Uneasy Peace Group 5 Michaela Julian Jessie Martin Karlee Rowland Emily Young Tina Holcomb
Woman Suffrage • Once entering the war, suffrage groups formed to campaign for women’s right to vote • Most important of these groups was the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) • NAWSA consisted of 2 million women who lobbied Congress for a constitutional amendment • In January 1920, with Tennessee's vote, the 19th Amendment was ratified • It granted women the right to vote
Prohibition • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, having a quarter million members, became the single largest women’s organization in American history • With so many breweries having German names, the anti-German feeling benefited the movement • The 18th Amendment was ratified by the states in 1919, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, transport, import, and export of alcoholic beverages
Public Health (Sex Hygiene) • Wartime mobilization brought deeper government involvement with public health issues, especially for: sex hygiene, child welfare, and disease prevention. • The war department organized a campaign against venereal disease, which attracted the energies of progressive-era sex reformers—social hygienists and antivice crusaders. • The military educated troops on the dangers of contracting STDs and distributed condoms. The scientific discussions of sex, to which recruits were subjected in lectures, pamphlets, and films were a first for the men. • The Division of Venereal Diseases, created in 1918 as a branch of the U.S. Public Health Service, established clinics offering free medical treatment to infected persons.
Child Welfare • The children’s bureau, created in 1912 as a part of the Labor Development, undertook a series of reports on special problems growing out of the war: • The increase in employment of married women • The finding of day care for children of working mothers • The growth of both child labor and delinquency • The “Children’s Year” campaign was established by Julia C. Lathrop in 1918 to promote public protection of expectant mothers and infants, and to enforce child labor laws. • Congress passed the Maternity and Infancy Act in 1921, giving over $1 million a year to be given to states by the Children’s Bureau. • Clinics for prenatal and obstetrical care came from these efforts, and greatly reduced the rate of infant and maternal mortality and disease.
Disease Prevention • The influenza epidemic of 1918-19 offered the most serious challenge to national public health during the war years. • It claimed nearly 20 million lives across the world but when it reached the American military camps, the combination of the “flu” and respiratory combinations killed roughly 550,000 Americans in ten months. • The American Medical Association called for massive government appropriations to search for a cure. • Congress gave a million dollars to the Public Health Service to combat and suppress the epidemic. • Much of the care came from the Red Cross nurses and volunteers working with communities across the nation. • This epidemic went relatively unnoticed by reports because of the focus on the state of the battlefront.
Repression and Reaction Bolshevik Revolution in Russia: • Appeared to be 1st successful revolution against a capitalist state • Radicals around the world drew inspiration Effects in America: • American conservatives worried similar revolutions were imminent • 1918-1920: federal government directed an antiradical campaign Portraits of the czar, his father and grandfather, are ripped from the walls in Petrograd.
Espionage Act (June 1917): Government’s key tool for the suppression of antiwar sentiment. Severe Penalties for anyone: • Aiding the enemy • Obstructing recruitment • Causing insubordination in the armed forces Penalties: • Twenty years imprisonment • $10,000 fine
Enforcement of the Espionage Act • Government had to increase overall police and surveillance machinery. • Bureau of Investigation in the Justice Department (later the FBI) coordinated civilian intelligence American Protective League • Mobilized 250,000 self-appointed “operatives” in more then 600 towns and cities • Members spied on their neighbors and staged a series of well-publicized “slacker” raids on antiwar protesters and draft evaders • Many communities sought to ban: • The teaching of the German Language in schools • The performance of German music in concert halls
The Espionage Act’s Effect on Journalism Empowered the postmaster general to exclude from the mails any newspapers or magazines he thought treasonous. *Within a year, the mailing rights of 45 newspapers had been revoked, including: • Several anti-British/pro-Irish publications Leading journals of American socialism such as: • Appeal to Reason • The Masses
Sedition Act (1918): OUTLAWED: “any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language intended to cause contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrepute” to the government, Constitution, or flag.