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The Great War

The Great War

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The Great War

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  1. The Great War

  2. ‘The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime’ Sir Edward Grey

  3. Origins of the War to end all Wars • Imperialism • Nationalism • Some people had no nation…Slavic people…more specifically Serbians… • Alliance system • Complicated…to say the least • France, GB, and Russia up against Italy, Germany and Austria • Internal Problems/Dissent • War to suppress issues? What were these issues… • Conscription and the Arms Race • 1.3 million Russia…900,000 France and Germany • General’s lack of flexibility or ‘Militarism’…this is seriously ridiculous (566)

  4. Crisis in the Balkans

  5. Summer of 1914… • June 28: Assassination of Austrian Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo • Serbian nationalist working for the ‘Black Hand’ • July 6: ‘Blank check’ given by Germany • To Austria…do what you need to… • July 23: Austria’s ultimatum to Serbia • Pretty harsh… • July 28: Austria declares war on Serbia • July 29: Russia mobilizes (Tsar Nicholas II)…partial no possible

  6. The Schlieffen Plan… • General Alfred von Schlieffen’s plan…a 2-Front war… • Poor Belgium…and worse yet…poor France…

  7. General Alfred von Schlieffen (1833-1913)…seriously…

  8. Summer 1914 cont… • July 31: Germany issues an ultimatum to Russia • Stop mobilization…or else • August 1: Germany declares war on Russia • August 3: Germany declares war on France • August 4: German troops invade Belgium and G.B. declares war on Germany…all the great powers of Europe are at war…

  9. cousins Tsar Nicholas II and wife Alexandra Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany

  10. Ah, the naively romantic enthusiasm for war… • ‘We will be home by Christmas’… • At first support and spirits were high • Not an imperialist war…something much different • Most major battles since 1815 had been over in a few weeks, except one… • A whole generation of working and middle class youth sign up... • Many felt it would change society…for the good…people would abandon their materialistic obsessions…it did change society...,“We are not youth any longer. We don't want to take the world by storm. We are fleeing from ourselves, from our life. We were eighteen and had begun to love life and the world; and we had to shoot it to pieces.“ Erich Maria Remarque

  11. The Western Front… Trench warfare…

  12. Miracle at the Marne (9-06 to 9-10)

  13. French soldiers at dugout along Marne

  14. Western Front

  15. Warfare on the Western Front • Trench Warfare(571) • Both sides were in virtually same positions for 4 years • Combat when on for months…no ambulance services… • ‘live and let live’ amongst common troops…Christmas Truce (1914) • No-Man’s Land… • Attacks were ordered and were usually completely suicidal and useless… • New Tactics (defensive at first ,later offensive) • Machine guns • Poison gas (Germans) British troops advancing through clouds of poison gas

  16. Christmas Truce… • I was having tea with A Company when we heard a lot of shouting and went out to investigate. We found our men and the Germans standing on their respective parapets. Suddenly a salvo arrived but did no damage. Naturally both sides got down and our men started swearing at the Germans, when all at once a brave German got on to his parapet and shouted out "We are very sorry about that; we hope no one was hurt. It is not our fault, it is that damned Prussian artillery." (Rutter 1934, p. 29)

  17. Trench Warfare British and French troops in German trench

  18. No Man’s Land

  19. Poison gas… Australian troops with small pox respirators on…

  20. British ‘Vickers’ crew with masks…

  21. Poison gas canisters being used across No-Man’s Land…

  22. British 55th division casualties (tear gas)

  23. British and German troops ‘hanging out’ in No-Man’s land

  24. Aerial view of Loos-Hulluch trench system (July 1917)

  25. Battle of Verdun, Feb-Nov 1916: 700,000 died in the few miles…

  26. What about on the Eastern front…

  27. The Eastern Front… • More mobile, but just as high casualty wise • Battle of Tannenberg (1914) German victory • 92,000 Russians captured, another 75,000 wounded or dead…Germans lost 20,000 • Meanwhile, Austria is getting beat up… • Initially, defeated by Russians in Galicia and Serbia • Italy joins with Allies and attacks Austria in May of 1915…Germany comes to aid and… • Routes Russian army pushing them some 300 miles back into their own territory…Russian losses stand at 2.5 million killed, wounded, or captured…the Russians are almost out of the war… • Between 1914 and 1916 some 2 million Russian soldiers were killed, another 4-6 million were wounded or captured, by March of 1917 the Russian government was in trouble… Russian troops awaiting German attack

  28. Tsar Nicholas II • Nicholas II came to power in 1894, ruled until 1917 • Nicholas II continued to rule as an autocrat and is wife Alexandra pushed for this continual role in society • Czar faced numerous disconnect with the Duma or Russian legislature… • Numerous political factions working within legislature to gain power… • TheMensheviks: wanted a ‘socialist’ Western state • The Bolsheviks: more extreme, violent revolution to bring down capitalist system…ie, communism…led by…Vladimir Ulianov…or V. I. Lenin

  29. October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution/November Revolution) 1917 THE REDS Peace, Bread, and Land!!! Peace? No, more like Civil War… Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)

  30. Alexei 1904-1918 Gaaah…Rasputin (1869-1916)

  31. July 16, 1918: Assassinated.

  32. The Great War goes Global. -Lawrence of Arabia: British officer in ME. Aided Arab revolt against Ottomans. -Africa: Starts in 1914, by1918, German colonies taken by Allies. -Aug 23, 1914. Japan joins allies, to take German territories in Asia. -New Zealand and Australia join Japan to drive Germans out of New Guinea. -100,000’s Africans and East Asians used to work in factories, build bridges and roads.

  33. Senegalese Troops

  34. Americans to the rescue? • Americans enter the war April 6, 1917. • (Former U.S. Ambassador to Germany, James Gerard Watson, November 25, 1917)** • Why? • Lusitania (1915) Germans cease unrestricted submarine warfare…reinstate it again in January 1917…Germans not worried, after all American troops were ‘unorganized and undisciplined’…one year later…

  35. The ‘Doughboy’

  36. The Last Year of the War • March 1918, Russians withdraw. • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Russians gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces…ouch • German offensive of the Marne, March to July, Germans came within 35 miles of Paris. But. . . • 1 Million American troops soon arrive on continent. • September 29, 1918, General Ludendorff tells Wilhelm II war is lost.

  37. ] Corporal Frank W. Buckles (1901-2011) “There was never a shortage of blown-up bodies that needed to be rushed to the nearest medical care. The British and French troops were in bad shape – even guys about my age looked old and tired. After three years of living and dying inside a dirt trench, you know the Brits and French were happy to see us "doughboys." Every last one of us Yanks believed we’d wrap this thing up in a month or two and head back home before harvest. In other words, we were the typical, cocky Americans no one wants around, until they need help winning a war.”

  38. Treaty/Diktat of Versailles, 1919: • Germany deprived of 1/8 of territory and 6.5 million people • Navy abolished • Army limited to 100,000 ( = Belgian army) • Germany blamed entirely for WWI (War Guilt Clause—Article 231) • Reparations—Germany required to pay for all costs of war (in Europe) • Note: Character of Treaty was VENGEFUL • But Not as Vengeful of Brest-Litovsk Treaty

  39. The Lost Generation “…They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning We will remember them. -Laurence Binyon, For The Fallen “…A generation of men who, even though they may have escaped shells, were destroyed by war.” -Erich Maria Remarque 8 -9 m. died on battlefield, 22 m. injured, untold numbers of civilians died. ‘Meaningless slaughter’ Liberalism, progress, western values…all were seen as being bad or wrong somehow… Woodrow Wilson: Americans regress into isolationism…manifested by us not joining the League of Nations…oh and by treating the Germans so harshly we are headed for another war…I think it is called WWII…

  40. It’s about to get much worse…the Great Depression • October 1929, American stock market crash…within a few years the world was in a depression the likes of which had never been seen before. • By 1930, 4.2 million Americans had lost their jobs…by 1932, that number increased to 12.6 million…elsewhere, like Germany 6 million people were out of work…Dawes Plan was supposed to help… • Most democratic government responded by lowering wages and raising taxes…it did not help…at all…in fact, it led to more mass discontent and the growth in popularity of Marxism and Fascism…

  41. And now… For something entirely different…

  42. Do we remember ‘nationalism’ and ‘westernization’…Dayna…see quiz… • A person’s identity is based upon their nationality which consists of a common language, tradition, culture, and history… • Colonization and the subjugation of rights that go along with it is not a natural state for mankind...Resistance is likely… • Ok, on a grander scale many colonized peoples responded with their own forms of nationalism. • Many societies in Asia and Africa transcended traditional religious beliefs and tribal loyalties to form political movements that were to overthrow the colonial power…ie, the Sepoys • Nationalist movements were used by educated elite and gradually spread to the masses…what ‘knowledge’ did these elites have? This led to a significant amount of personal turmoil…why? • How did these resistance movements fair? • Role of westernization/modernization, and independence…

  43. Nationalism in India… • India saw the biggest debate… • Religious identity…Brits provoke a national identity that transcends… • At first, it was a slow process to start…most preferred modernization (INC, 1885), not revolution…the Brits made it difficult • Gandhi’s satyagraha(‘hold fast to the truth’) • Who was he… • 1921, 5 million Indians enfranchised by Brits…but it in too little, too late • Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) • With him, the movement became both ‘religious and secular, native and Western, traditional and modern’ (594) Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)

  44. Dictatorship Latin America… • Latin America had been dominated by Spain/Portugal since 1500’s…coveted because of it’s exports in foods and raw materials…(609)…know these • By early 1900’s dominated by the Brits…despite that most Latin American countries had achieved independence. • Later it was…guess who…via the United Fruit Company (1899)… • The Great Depression, reliance on foreign monies, and the majority of the people being poor…much of Latin America came under the control of dictators in the 1930’s…