The Great War Why did it happen? AKA Causes of WWI
Nationalism • Positive effect= unity within a country • Negative effect= competition with other nations • materials and markets • Territorial disputes • Desire to dominate regions that were growing nationalistic themselves (Imperialism) made the great powers rivals
Imperialism • The Quest for territory oversees to provide raw materials and markets for manufactured goods • Often competition led to the brink of war • Nations began to mistrust each other and rivalries grew.
Militarism Militarism- the policy of having a large, strong army that was prepared for war by being able to quickly mobilized • European Arms Race- belief that to be truly great you had to have a large military • Made citizens feel patriotic and foreigners frightened
Alliances • Designed to help keep peace • Triple Alliance (Bismark)= Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Goal to unify against future French aggression) • They also signed a treaty with Russia • Kaiser Wilhelm II- German leader in 1890 who changed Bismark’s policies
Kaiser Wilhelm II- Aggression? • Boasted of a strong German army • Allowed the treaty with Russia to lapse. • Russia aligned with France out of fear • Sought to build a powerful navy (better than Britain's) • Britain aligned through an agreement (entente) with France in 1907 that they would not fight each other, then signed one with Russia
Triple Alliance AKA Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Italy *Would later join the Allies Triple Entente AKA Allied Powers England France Russia Two Sets of Alliances Some of these had additional alliances with other nations …. Russia with Serbia
The Balkans • Where- Eastern Europe • What- former parts of the Ottoman Empire that had gained independence • Problem- Slavic people were spread throughout the region Serbians sought to join all Slavic people into one nation • The Fuel- Austria-Hungary held a large chunk of land-including Bosnia- made of Slavs and Serbia wanted it!!! • Both vowed to fight if necessary!
The shot…. • Serbians in Bosnia wanted the Austro-Hungarians out • June 28, 1914- Heir to the throne (Archduke Franz Ferdinand) and his wife visited the capital • A 19 year old, Serbian member of the Black Hand group (Gavrilo Princip) shot & killed them • Austria blamed Serbia & sent them demands to avoid war
The Great War Europe Plunges into War
Declarations of war • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia • Russia declared war on Austria Hungary • Germany declared war on France • Great Britain declared war on Germany • Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Russia) joined by Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire • Allies (Russia, Serbia, Britain, France) were joined by Japan & Italy
Things to know about WWI • Western Front= Stalemate along northern France • Eastern Front= Along the German-Russian border • More mobile that the Western Front • Schieffen Plan- Germany would full-force fight in the West and then move toward Russia • Battle of Marne- Allies won and ruined the Schieffen Plan • Trench Warfare- miles of parallel trenches for protection and fighting that stretched for 500 miles
Life in the trenches • Misery • mud • Rats • No fresh food • No sleep • Danger of collapse • No man’s land • Between opposing trenches • Entered only on command= certain death
Trench Warfare http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41830000/jpg/_41830392_somme416_3.jpg www.germannotes.com
Russia Struggles • Lack of industrialization led to shortages • Food • Guns • Ammunition • Clothes and boots • Blankets • Allies couldn’t help b/c Germans controlled the Baltic Sea and Ottoman control in the south • Russia’s only asset= large population
New weapons of war • Poison Gas • Introduced by Germans • Blindness, blister, death by choking www.1914-1918.net/PIX/uniform1918.JPG
Poison Gas Attack An Attack using poison gas cylinders Enormous Stock Pile of Poison Gas in a Belgian Forest http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Poison_gas_attack.jpg A Soldier with Mustard Gas Burns www.1914-1918.net/PIX/uniform1918.JPG z.about.com/.../200px-Mustard_gas_burns.jpg
New weapons of war WWI German Maxim Machine Gun • Machine Gun • First used in Civil War- perfected by the British (Maxim Machine Gun Hiram Maxim and his Machine Gun 126.96.36.199/MG42/FULL/Maxim%20MG.jpg http://www.ppu.org.uk/war/arms/maxim_1.jpg
New Weapons of War • Flame Thrower • German made • Terrorized allies in the trenches www.venetika.eu/storage/WW1-02.JPG?__SQUARESP...
WWI French Troops Using Flame Throwers • " ... flame has a powerful psychological effect in that humans instinctively withdraw from it, even when their morale is good. In addition, it is a casualty producing and lethal agent.“ (Austrian Training Pamphlet WWI)
New weapons of war • Tanks • British • Soon used by everyone www.warbirdphotographs.com/ATC/ATC-FrenchWWI-...
New weapons of war Fighter Planes • Both sides • Developed as the war progressed Hot air balloons were first used techcenter.davidson.k12.nc.us/Group9/airship.jpg The French outfitted planes with machine guns boonedocks.net/pa/img.php?id=62&x=320&y=320
New weapons of war Submarines • Germans • Used torpedoes to attach ships (not always enemy ships….) U 151- First German Submarine Image www.njscuba.net/sites/images/u-151_1__.jpg