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The Great War

The Great War

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The Great War

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  1. The Great War Chapter 13

  2. Marching TowardWar Section 1

  3. Rising Tensions • Nationalism • “Intense pride for one’s country” • Materials, markets, territory • Balkans • Imperialism • “Stronger nation dominating over weaker one” • Competition for colonies • Militarism • “Having a large & standing army ready for war” • Quick mobilization • Alliances

  4. Alliances • Otto von Bismarck – Prussia & Germany • Isolate France – Ally with A-H • Italy joins later • Triple Alliance – Ger., It., & A-H • Add Russia next, but they won’t stay long… • Kaiser Wilhelm II replaces Bismarck • Lapse w/ Russia • Join w/ France • Build big navy • G.B. not happy – Ally with France & Russia • Triple Entente

  5. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

  6. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe

  7. Balkans • “Powder keg of Europe” • Ottomans losing control & land • Serbia wanted Slavic people • Russia = Slavs; support Serbia • A-H annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina • Really upsets Serbia; Very high tensions! • Archduke Franz Ferdinand – Heir to A-H • June 28, 1914 – He & wife were shot • GavriloPrincip – 19-yr. old • “Black Hand” • Declare war on Serbia, Russia mobilizes…

  8. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

  9. The Assassination: Sarajevo

  10. The Assassin: GavriloPrincip “Black Hand” – Serbian Nationalist Group

  11. Who’s To Blame?

  12. Aggressive Nationalism

  13. Europe PlungesInto War Section 2

  14. War Begins • Central Powers • Germany, A-H, & Ottomans • Allied Powers • G.B., France, Russia • Japan & Italy join soon after

  15. Two Armed Camps! Central Powers: Allied Powers:

  16. A Bloody Stalemate • Not a short war… • Western Front – Northern France • Schlieffen Plan • “Quick war w/ France, then focus on Russia” • Allies attack @ Battle of the Marne • Taxicabs • Germans retreat • Threw off Schlieffen Plan • Russians invade Germany from east • Two-fronts • Move troops from France to Russia

  17. The Schlieffen Plan What about Belgium?

  18. Warfare • New tools • Machine guns – prevented soldier advance • Poison Gas – blindness, blisters, gas masks • Tanks – Battle of the Somme – terrain • Submarine – torpedoes (Germans) • Did not make war faster, just bloodier • Trench Warfare • Dug into the ground • “No man’s land” • Battle of the Somme – ½ million each • …5 miles

  19. The Airplane

  20. The Flying Aces of World War I FrancescoBarraco, It. Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br. Eddie Rickenbacher, US Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”] Rene PaukFonck, Fr. Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.

  21. The Zeppelin

  22. FlameThrowers GrenadeLaunchers

  23. Poison Gas Machine Gun

  24. Trench Warfare

  25. Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

  26. Americans in the Trenches

  27. Eastern Front • German-Russian border • Russia not very industrialized • Biggest asset? • Numbers! • Suffer major losses and keep fighting • War heads south…

  28. A GlobalConflict Section 3

  29. World at War • Dardanelles • Constantinople • Gallipoli Campaign • Australia & New Zealand help out British • Fight Turkish forces • Dug trenches • Allies give up & evacuate – ¼ million die • Asia • Japan takes German islands in Africa & Pacific

  30. America Joins the Fight • German submarines – U-Boats • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • Sunk British ship Lusitania – 2,000 die (128 U.S.) • Sink 2 more ships, then finally promise to stop • Germans need an advantage – return to U.S.W. • Blockade of Britain – hope end war • Germans ignore Wilson’s demands • Final straw…

  31. The Zimmerman Telegram

  32. U-Boats

  33. Sinking of the Lusitania Act of terrorism

  34. The YanksAre Coming!

  35. U.S. Is In • Zimmerman Telegram • Intercepted by British • Mexico invade U.S. • Get back territory U.S took • Join with the Allies • British common bond (language/government)

  36. Home Front • Total War • “Devote ALL resources to war effort” • Government takes control of industries • Short supply = rationing • “Small amounts of necessary goods” • Suppressed Anti-war activity = propaganda • “One-sided info. meant to persuade” • Gain support for war • Women help out in factories & shops

  37. Munitions Workers

  38. War Comes to a Close • Russia withdraws • Czar Nicholas steps down • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin steps in • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Germany sends all troops to Western front • U.S. swings the balance of the war • Reach Marne again • Allies win again @ 2nd Battle of the Marne • Sign an armistice • “Agreement to stop fighting” – Nov. 11, 1918

  39. Lenin

  40. Short Answer Practice • Total War • Who • What • When • Where • Why • Significance: • Try to answer these questions without using your notes and tell me what you think the significance of these events it.

  41. A Flawed Peace Section 4

  42. Allies Meet • Big Four • U.S., France, Great Britain, Italy • Wilson’s Plan for Peace • 14-Point Plan • No secret treaties • Freedom of the seas • Free trade • Reduction of nat’l armies and navies • New borders for new nations – self-determination • “Allow people to decide for themselves the type of government they want” • 14th point – “general association of nations” • Negotiate solutions to world conflicts

  43. Treaty of Versailles • Paris Peace Conference • Not thrilled with Wilson’s idea • League of Nations • Too easy on Germany • Treaty of Versailles • Stripped of armed forces • Reparations • $33 billion • Admit guilt for war • “A peace built on quicksand” • U.S. rejects the treaty – Stay out of European affairs • Germans bitter over war-guilt clause • To be continued…….