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Venezuela: Introduction to the Political Environment. Nineteenth Century: Independence & the Federal Wars. Simón Bolívar and South American Independence Venezuela splits from Gran Colombia (1830) Jose Antonio Paez & Conservative Ascendency The Federal Wars 1858-63

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Venezuela: Introduction to the Political Environment


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Venezuela: Introduction to the Political Environment

    2. Nineteenth Century: Independence & the Federal Wars • Simón Bolívar and South American Independence • Venezuela splits from Gran Colombia (1830) • Jose Antonio Paez & Conservative Ascendency • The Federal Wars 1858-63 • Desire for a more democratic society • Anti-clericalism • Personalism • Caracas vs. Interior

    3. Dawn of Liberal Hegemony? • Victorious “Liberals” • fail to restore order • Instability leads to rule of Guzmán Blanco Blanco • Liberal Enlightenment (1870 – 1888) • Centralization of power in Caracas • Economic development • Modernization • Antonio Guzmán Blanco

    4. Characteristics of the “Liberal Enlightenment” (1870 – 1888) • Guzmán Blanco • Handson rule initially • Exercisedpowerbehindthescenessubsequently • Holiday in Paris (1884-1886Accomplishments • Centralization of power in Caracas • Economicdevelopment • Infrastructureconstruction • Modernization of Caracas Dictatorship “light” Arch of the Federation

    5. Political Chaos Ends Liberal Era • 1890 Guzmán Blanco’s heirs divide into factions • 1899 – clash among political factions leads to violence • Return of revolutionary chaos opens the way for Andean domination.

    6. THE ANDEAN DICTATORSHIPS BEGIN • Cipriano Castro and the Táchira Revolutionaries • October 22, 1899 – Victorious Andeans enter Caracas • Castro in power 1899-1908 • Four years of intermittant fighting • Default on foreign debts leads to blockade (1902) • U.S.: role as negotiator • Castro becomes nationalist hero by resisting demands for debt payment by North Atlantic nations • November 1908 – to Europe for an operation

    7. Juan Vicente Gómez (1908-1935 • Style of governing • Political unification • Economic transformation • Runs Venezuela like his ranch • Cattle deals used to build the state • Force and economic incentives ensure loyalty of the inner circle

    8. December 1935:Outburst of hatred against Gómez clan upon the passing of the dictator

    9. Heirs of Gomez: Modernization and Oligarchic Democracy (1935-1945 • López Contraras • Medina Angarita (1940-45) • Continuing modernization • Nationalism and petroleum • Politics of the aborted 1945 presidential election campaign • Revolution of October 18, 1945

    10. A DECADE OF REVOLUTIONARY MODERNIZATION BEGINS • Trienio (1945-48) • Rapid modernization of peasants • AD takes control of organized labor • Marxist cast of AD governments antagonizes the church • Incorporation of provincial middle class • Constitution of 1947 • Universal suffrage • Representative democracy

    11. Elections of December, 1947 • AD’s Rómulo Gallegos wins more than 2/3 of vote • Opposition parties frustrated • COPEI (Christian Democrats) • PCV (Communists) • URD (Democratic Republican Union)

    12. Coup: November 28, 1948 • AD divided & paralyzed • Opposition believes they have been treated unfairly • Church fears Marxist impact on Catholic education • Military succumbs to pressure from opponents of the government • Provisional President Gen. Carlos Delgado Chalbaud

    13. General Pérez Jiménez and the New National Ideal • Andean militarism with a new twist • Populism • Physical development • Reliance on petroleum income • Nationalism • Infrastructure development Loved by the U.S. business community?

    14. Decay of the military regime (1956-57) • Increasing persecution of opponents • Fall in oil prices • Corruption • All work and no play makes Marcos a dull boy

    15. Fall of the Pérez Jiménez Dictatorship (1957-58) • Mid 1957 • Democratic Forces - meet in New York City to coordinate efforts against the dictatorship • November 1957 • Plebiscite on another term for the dictator • January 23 1958 Democratic Revolution • Return of exiles • Pact of Punto Fijo (shares power) • Much of territory remains under-populated

    16. CARACAS ( late 1950’s)

    17. TRANSITION TO REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY • National Elections: December 1958 • Results (Presidential) • AD: Rómulo Betancourt (49%) • URD, PCV: Admiral Wolfgang Larrazabal (35%) • COPEI: Rafael Caldera (16%) • January 1, 1959 • PuntoFijo democracy begins