Download
gilded age politics n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
GILDED AGE POLITICS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
GILDED AGE POLITICS

GILDED AGE POLITICS

116 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

GILDED AGE POLITICS

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. GILDED AGE POLITICS Amanda Donner St. James H.S.

  2. The Abandonment of Reconstruction

  3. Northern Support Wanes • “Grantism” & corruption. • Panic of 1873 [6-yeardepression]. • Concern over westwardexpansion and Indian wars. • Key monetary issues: • should the government retire $432m worth of “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War. • should war bonds be paid back in specie orgreenbacks.

  4. 1876 Presidential Tickets

  5. “Regional Balance?”

  6. 1876 Presidential Election

  7. The Political Crisis of 1877 • “Corrupt Bargain”Part II?

  8. Hayes Prevails

  9. Alas, the Woes of Childhood… Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my Presidency, and he won’t give it to me!

  10. A Political Crisis: The “Compromise” of 1877

  11. The "Politics of Equilibrium"

  12. 1. A Two-Party Stalemate

  13. Two-Party “Balance”

  14. 2. Intense Voter Loyalty to theTwo MajorPolitical Parties

  15. Politics a major fascination of late nineteenth century • White males make up bulk of electorate • women may vote in national elections only in Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Colorado

  16. 3. Well-Defined Voting Blocs DemocraticBloc RepublicanBloc • White southerners(preservation ofwhite supremacy) • Catholics • Recent immigrants(esp. Jews) • Urban working poor (pro-labor) • Most farmers • Northern whites(pro-business) • African Americans • Northern Protestants • Old WASPs (supportfor anti-immigrant laws) • Most of the middleclass

  17. 4. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt. • From 1870-1900  Govt. did verylittle domestically. • Main duties of the federal govt.: • Deliver the mail. • Maintain a national military. • Collect taxes & tariffs. • Conduct a foreign policy. • Exception  administer the annual Civil War veterans’ pension.

  18. 5. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office • Party bosses ruled. • Presidents should avoid offending anyfactions within theirown party. • The President justdoled out federal jobs. • 1865  53,000 people worked for the federal govt. • 1890  166,000 “ “ “ “ “ “ Senator Roscoe Conkling

  19. 1880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half Breeds Stalwarts Sen. James G. Blaine Sen. Roscoe Conkling (Maine) (New York) compromise James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP)

  20. Republican Question • Stalwart or Halfbreed • Stalwart—Supported the spoils system & Radical Republicanism • Halfbreed—Supported Civil Service reform

  21. 1880 Presidential Election: Democrats

  22. Inspecting the Democratic Curiosity Shop

  23. 1880 Presidential Election

  24. Garfield (R)Halfbreed wins election, on July 2, 1881 he was assassinated by Charles Guiteau who said “I am a Stalwart” Garfield’s VP Chester A. Arthur (Stalwart) was now president

  25. 1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau:I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!

  26. Chester A. Arthur:The Fox in the Chicken Coop?

  27. Civil Service Reform • The assassination of the Pres pushed people to reform Beginning of the end for the Spoils System

  28. Pendleton Act (1883) • Civil Service Act. • The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform. • 1883  14,000 out of117,000 federal govt.jobs became civilservice exam positions. • 1900  100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs.

  29. Republican “Mugwumps” • Reformers who wouldn’t re-nominateChester A. Arthur. • Reform to them  create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves. • Social Darwinists. • Laissez faire government to them: • Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society. • Their target was political corruption, not social or economic reform!

  30. TheMugwumps Men may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever. • Will support Cleveland in the1884 election.

  31. 1884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland James Blaine* (DEM) (REP)

  32. A Dirty Campaign Ma, Ma…where’s my pa?He’s going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!

  33. Little Lost Mugwump Blaine in 1884

  34. During election many Rep. bolted the party. Blaine’s indiscretions came out (he took graft & sold his votes) Cleveland ran an election on reform platform—battle graft & corruption

  35. Rum, Romanism & Rebellion! • Led a delegation of ministers to Blaine inNYC. • Reference to the Democratic Party. • Blaine was slow torepudiate the remark. • Narrow victory forCleveland [he wins NYby only 1149 votes!]. Dr. Samuel Burchard

  36. 1884 Presidential Election

  37. Cleveland’s First Term • The “Veto Governor” from New York. • Cleveland uses veto to curtail federal activities—vetoed bills for fraudulent pensions for veterans • First Democratic elected since 1856. • A public office is a public trust! • Establishes the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)—regulate R/R’s 1st time • His laissez-faire presidency: • Opposed bills to assist the poor aswell as the rich. • Vetoed over 200 special pension billsfor Civil War veterans!

  38. Bravo, Señor Clevelando!

  39. The Tariff Issue • After the Civil War, Congress raisedtariffs to protect new US industries. • Big business wanted to continue this;consumers did not. • 1885  tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! • Mugwumps opposed it  WHY??? • President Cleveland’s view on tariffs???? • Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888presidential election.

  40. Filing the Rough Edges Tariff of 1888

  41. 1888 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison(DEM) *(REP)

  42. Cleveland wins popular vote, but loses election Harrison ran on platform of giving $ to veteran pensions

  43. Coming Out for Harrison

  44. The Smallest Specimen Yet

  45. 1888 Presidential Election 1888—Republicans control both White House and Capitol Hill

  46. Disposing the Surplus

  47. Changing Public Opinion • Americans wanted the federal govt. to dealwith growing soc. & eco. problems & to curbthe power of the trusts: • Interstate Commerce Act – 1887 • Sherman Silver Purchase Act – 1890 requires treasury to purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly (backs paper money with silver)—not enough for farmers

  48. Changing Public Opinion • McKinley Tariff – 1890 • Based on the theory that prosperityflowed directly from protectionism. • Increased already high rates another 4%! • raises duties on manufactured goods (hurt farmers) • Raised taxes on agricultural imports (helped) • 1890—Sherman Anti-Trust Act regulates big business—break up monopolies • Does not define trust completely • Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (evenMcKinley lost his House seat!).