Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Gilded Age Politics PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Gilded Age Politics

Gilded Age Politics

142 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Gilded Age Politics

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Gilded Age Politics

  2. The "Politics of Equilibrium"

  3. 2. Well-Defined Voting Blocs DemocraticBloc RepublicanBloc • White southerners(preservation ofwhite supremacy) • Catholics • Recent immigrants(esp. Jews) • Urban working poor (pro-labor) • Most farmers • Northern whites(pro-business) • African Americans • Northern Protestants • Old WASPs (supportfor anti-immigrant laws) • Most of the middleclass

  4. Two-Party “Balance”

  5. 3. Intense Voter Loyalty to theTwo MajorPolitical Parties

  6. 4. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt. • From 1870-1900  Govt. did verylittle domestically. • Main duties of the federal govt.: • Deliver the mail. • Maintain a national military. • Collect taxes & tariffs. • Conduct a foreign policy. • Exception  administer the annual Civil War veterans’pension; subsidies to RRs; stop strikes

  7. 5. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office • Party bosses ruled. • Presidents should avoid offending anyfactions within theirown party. • The President justdoled out federal jobs. • 1865  53,000 people worked for the federal govt. • 1890  166,000 ““““““ Senator Roscoe Conkling

  8. 6. States Experiment • Funded schools, prisons, homes for disabled veterans • Created commissions to oversee RRs • (1877) Munn v. Illinois • (1886) Wabash v. Illinois • (1887) Interstate Commerce Act • ICC

  9. The Issues

  10. 1. Patronage

  11. 2. Money • $450 in Greenbacks • Silver backed money • Farmers in South and West • Bankers and Businessmen of the Northeast • Gold

  12. 3. Tariff • Tariff high during war; kept it • Manufacturers raised prices • Treasury Dept had surplus of over $100 million a year • Source of temptation • Business wanted tariff • Farmers suffering from high prices

  13. 1880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half Breeds Stalwarts Sen. James G. Blaine Sen. Roscoe Conkling (Maine) (New York) compromise James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP)

  14. 1880 Presidential Election: Democrats

  15. 1880 Presidential Election

  16. 1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau:I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!

  17. Chester A. Arthur:The Fox in the Chicken Coop?

  18. Pendleton Act (1883) • Civil Service Act. • The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform. • 1883  14,000 out of117,000 federal govt.jobs became civilservice exam positions. • 1900  100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs.

  19. Election of 1884: James G. Blaine • Republican party leader • “Mulligan letters” • “Burn this letter” • Republican “Mugwumps”

  20. 1884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland James Blaine* (DEM) (REP)

  21. A Dirty Campaign Ma, Ma…where’s my pa?He’s going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!

  22. 1884 Presidential Election

  23. Cleveland’s First Term • The “Veto Governor” from New York. • First Democratic elected since 1856. • A public office is a public trust! • His laissez-faire presidency: • Opposed bills to assist the poor aswell as the rich. • Vetoed over 200 special pension billsfor Civil War veterans!

  24. The Tariff Issue • After the Civil War, Congress raisedtariffs to protect new US industries. • Big business wanted to continue this;consumers did not. • 1885  tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! • President Cleveland’s view on tariffs???? • Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888presidential election.

  25. 1888 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison(DEM) *(REP)

  26. Coming Out for Harrison

  27. 1888 Presidential Election

  28. Disposing the Surplus

  29. Changing Public Opinion • Americans wanted the federal govt. to dealwith growing soc. & eco. problems & to curbthe power of the trusts: • Interstate Commerce Act – 1887 • Sherman Antitrust Act – 1890 • Sherman Silver Purchase Act • McKinley Tariff – 1890 • Based on the theory that prosperityflowed directly from protectionism. • Increased already high rates another 4%! • Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (evenMcKinley lost his House seat!).

  30. 1892 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison again! * (DEM) (REP)

  31. 1892 Presidential Election

  32. Cleveland Loses Support Fast! • The only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. • Blamed for the 1893 Panic. • Defended the gold standard. • Used federal troops in the 1894Pullman strike. • Refused to sign the Wilson-GormanTariff of 1894. • Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.