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GILDED AGE POLITICS

GILDED AGE POLITICS

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GILDED AGE POLITICS

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  1. GILDED AGE POLITICS POLITICAL MACHINES, REFORM, POPULISM

  2. POLITICAL MACHINES • DEFINITION: • A “GANG” OF PEOPLE WHO CONTROLLED CITY GOV’T FOR THEIR OWN PROFIT AND SELF INTEREST

  3. HOW THEY GOT MONEY • GRAFT/PADDING BILLS: • ILLEGAL USE OF POLITICAL INFLUENCE FOR PERSONAL GAIN • OVERCHARGE TAX PAYERS TO BUILD STUFF FOR THE GOV’T. THE BUILDERS AND MACHINE MEMBERS SPLIT THE EXTRA $$. • BRIBES: • GOV’T OFFICIALS WOULD ACCEPT BRIBES FOR LICENSES, NOT DOING INSPECTIONS, ETC. THE OFFICALS WOULD “KICKBACK” SOME OF THE MONEY TO THE MACHINE

  4. HOW THEY GOT VOTES • IMMIGRANTS: • THE MACHINE MEMBERS GAVE IMMIGRANTS JOBS, ARRANGED FOR HOUSING IN EXCHANGE FOR VOTES • PADDING LISTS/FRAUD: • MACHINE MEMBERS USE DEAD PEOPLE’S NAMES, DOGS, IMGINARY PEOPLE’S NAMES THEN ADD THEM TO THE LIST OF REGISTERED VOTERS AND VOTE ILLEGALLY

  5. PARTY BOSS WARD BOSS PRECINCT CAPTAIN COMMON PEOPLE BUSINESSMEN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

  6. EXPOSING MACHINES &CORRUPTION • THOMAS NAST • A CARTOONIST WHO EXPOSED POLITICAL MACHINES THROUGH HIS DRAWINGS • MOST POOR PEOPLE COULDN’T READ WELL • RAISED AWARENESS AMONG THE COMMON PEOPLE OF WHY POLITICAL MACHINES WERE BAD

  7. EXAMPLE • TAMMANY HALL: DEMOCRATIC HEADQUARTERS OF NY CITY/POLITICAL MACHINE OF NYC • BOSS TWEED: POLITICAL BOSS OF NY CITY • TWEED RING: GROUP THAT CONTROLLED TAMMANY HALL • NY COUNTY COURTHOUSE- BOSS TWEED CHARGED TAXPAYERS $13 MILLION TO BUILD COURTHOUSE BUT IT ONLY COST $3 MILLION. HE POCKETED $10 MILLION

  8. POOR WANT RICH WANT RELEVANT PRESIDENTS RESULT WINNER LOWER TARIFF: HIGHER TARIFF: HIGHER TARIFF DON’T WANT TO COMPETE WITH FOREIGN GOODS CLEVELAND- TRIES TO LOWER, NO SUCCESS HARRISON- RAISED TARIFFS TO 48% CLEVELAND- ONLY LOWERED TO 41% MCKINLEY- RAISED BACK TO 46% HIGH TARIFF RICH REFORM IN THE GILDED AGETARIFF

  9. POOR WANT RICH WANT RELEVANT PRESIDENTS RESULT WINNER MORE $ PRINTED- BIMETALLISM (GOLD AND SILVER) LESS $ PRINTED- GOLD STANDARD TO MAKE VALUE HIGHER HAYES VETOES, BUT CONGRESS PASSES BLAND ALLISON ACT- ALLOWED SOME SILVER COINAGE 1890- SILVER PURCHASE ACT PASSED BY HARRISON- GOV’T BUYS EXCESS SILVER CLEVLAND REPEALS 1900- GOLD STANDARD ACT PASSED GOLD STANDARD RICH REFORM IN THE GILDED AGEMONETARY

  10. POOR WANT RICH WANT RELEVANT PRESIDENTS RESULT WINNER END OF SPOILS SYSTEM- WANT JOBS BASED ON MERIT CONTINUE SPOILS SYSTEM- MEANS FED. EMPLOYEES WOULD CHANGE WITH EVERY PRESIDENT HAYES TRIES TO CLEAN UP THE NYC CUSTOM HOUSE BUT CONGRESS DOES NOT SUPPORT STALWARTS FORM TO OPPOSE REFORM GARFIELD STARTS REFORM BUT ASSASSINATED!! VP ARTHUR TURNS REFORMER PASSES PENDLETON ACT- MAKE FED. APPOINTMENTS BASED ON CANDIDATES PERFORMANCE ON TEST CIVIL SERVICE REFORM- NOW LIMITED # OF PEOPLE ARE CHANGED POOR REFORM IN THE GILDED AGECIVIL SERVICE

  11. FARMERS IN THE GILDED AGEDEBTS • OWED $ FOR • NEW MACHINERY, SEED, LAND, ETC. • HARD TO PAY DEBTS SINCE • BANKS AND WEALTHY CONTROLLED THE $ SUPPLY (UNDER PRINTING MONEY) • RICH WANT LESS $ PRINTED, ONLY BACKED BY GOLD- CALLED • “GOLDBUGS” • FARMERS WANT GOLD AND SILVER USED TO BACK $ SO MORE CAN BE PRINTED- CALLED • “SILVERITES” AND BIMETALLISM

  12. FARMERS IN THE GILDED AGERAILROADS • WERE OVERCHARGING FARMERS TO SHIP CROPS. HAD A MONOPOLY • FARMERS WANT THE GOV’T TO STOP THIS AND REGULATE THEM • THEY FORM A SOCIAL/POLITICAL ORGANIZATION CALLED GRANGE FOUNDER OLIVER HUDSON KELLEY • THE GRANGE SUCCESSFULLY ELECT LOCAL AND STATE POLITICIANS TO REGULATE RRDS IN STATES. UPHELD BY COURT CASE MUNN V. ILLINOIS • BUT MOST RRDS RUN BETWEEN STATES AND NEED FEDERAL OVERSIGHT • INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT WILL BE PASSED, BUT NOT ENFORCED

  13. POPULIST PARTY • POPULISM: • MEMBERS: FARMERS, FACTORY WORKERS, “PEOPLE’S PARTY”, LITTLE PEOPLE, MINERS, WOMEN • WANTED: BIMETALLISM AND FREE COINAGE OF SILVER, LIMITED HOURS OF WORK, GOV’T REGULATION OF RRDS • NOMINATE: WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN TO RUN FOR PRESIDENT

  14. POPULISM • REPUBLICANS • MEMBERS: “GOLDBUGS”, WEALTHY, POWERFUL, BUSINESS INTERESTS • MCKINLEY: THE “FRONT PORCH CAMPAIGN”- AT HIS HOUSE COME AND WAVE

  15. WIZARD OF OZ • OZ: OUNCES (GOLD AND SILVER MEASURED IN)- WASHINGTON, D.C. • DOROTHY: COMMON MAN • WICKED WITCHES: RR-WEST, BANKS- EAST • MUNCHKINS: FACTORY WORKERS, FARMERS, MINERS • YELLOW BRICK ROAD: GOLD STANDARD • SLIPPERS: SILVER • TIN MAN: FACTORY WORKERS (MISSING HEART FROM INDUSTRIALIZATION) • SCARECROW: FARMERS (MISSING BRAIN) • LION: WJB • WIZARD: PRESIDENCY