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Goal 12

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Goal 12

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  1. Goal 12

  2. Ford & Carter

  3. Gerald Ford • 1913 – 2006 • 38th President (1974 – 77) • Former Univ. of Michigan football player, WWII veteran, and 25 year Congressman • Self-deprecatingly once described his abilities as president with, “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln” • Only president to never be elected to the office of president or vice-president, since he was appointed Nixon’s vice-president after Spiro Agnew resigned due to scandal

  4. Jimmy Carter • 39th President (1977-81) • Issues: • Oil Crisis • Iran Hostage Crisis • Graduate of the US Naval Academy, but took over his family’s peanut farm after the sudden death of his father

  5. Ronald Reagan • 40th President (1981 – 89) • Issues: • Reaganomics • Iran-Contra Affair • Actor before he became involved in politics, then Gov. of California

  6. George Bush Sr. • 41st President (1989–93) • Issues: • Persian Gulf War- 1st war with Iraq • Last WWII vet to be president • Former head of the CIA, • Only the second president in US history to have a son also serve as president

  7. Bill Clinton • 42nd President (1993 – 2001) • Issues: • Election of 1992- Ross Perot (split Republican party) • Whitewater- Monica Lewinsky- Impeachment • Won election despite numerous reports of extramarital affairs • Promised major health-care reform in his campaign, but was unable to gain approval

  8. George W. Bush • 43rd President (2001 -09) • Issues: • Election of 2000- recoutn • 9/11- War on Terror- • War with Iraq • Former Governor of Texas • Son of President George H.W. Bush • Former part-owner of the MLB’s Texas Rangers

  9. BarackObama • 44thPresident (2009 – now) • Issues: • War with Iraq • Healthcare • Economy • First black president • First from Hawaii • Won 2008 election by a wide margin, winning over 10 million more popular votes and nearly 100 more electoral votes than his opponent

  10. Stagflation • Stagflation: • when inflation and unemployment increase and the economy is stalled- causing a recession (1970s)

  11. Whip Inflation Now (WIN) • Asked Americans to voluntarily reduce energy and fuel consumption • When that failed, he tried cutting government spending but that didn’t work either

  12. Reaganomics • He cut taxes by 25% on the rich • “Trickle-down” theory: by helping the rich, they will have more money to create jobs and the benefits will “trickle-down” to the poor • (also called “supply-side” economics)

  13. Economic Recovery • Reaganomics worked and the economy recovered and began to grow at a record rate • The average family income rose by 15% and 20 million new jobs were created

  14. NAFTA • North American Free Trade Agreement • Its purpose was to Open up trade between US, Mexico and Canada

  15. Economic Boom • In general, the stock markets boombed during the 1990s which promoted great economic growth

  16. Oil Embargo • In anger over US support for Israel, most Arab states began to punish America, and the most effective way was restricting oil production • Oil that was $3/barrel in 1973 climbed to $30/barrel by 1980. Increased fuel costs meant less money to spend on other things, which led to a recession • No longer an issue because America and OPEC get along.

  17. OPEC • Organizatio of Patroleum Exporting Countries • OPEC stopped selling oil to the U.S. after we sent massive military aide to their enemy, Israel. • When OPEC started selling oil back to the U.S. the price quadrupled.

  18. National Energy Act of 1978 • Placed higher taxes on cars that weren’t fuel efficient • Gave tax credits to homeowners who improved insulation or used solar energy • Provided funding for research into alternative energy sources

  19. Three-Mile IslandMarch 28, 1979 • Nuclear plant- part of reactor melted- radiation released- caused improvements in nuclear plants • Although there were no deaths directly contributed to the accident, cancer and infant mortality rates in the areas downwind showed marked increases in the years immediately following • Since the accident, use of nuclear power has declined in the US

  20. Courts & Legal Changes • Ronald Reagan was the first president to appoint a woman to the Supreme Court. Her name was Sandra Day O’Connor. • President Bush (the 1st), appointed a controversial judge to the Supreme Court, Clarence Thomas. • During his confirmation hearings he faced tough questions about views on civil rightsandsexual harassment. This started a public debate on the matter.

  21. Title IX & Texas v. Johnson • Part of the Education Amendments of the Civil Rights Act, this section prohibits discrimination in federally funded educational facilities based on sex. It has impacted equality in sports teams, recruiting, admissions, housing and scholarships among other things. • This court case determined that flag burning was legal due to a person’s rights under the First Amendment

  22. Americans with Disabilities Act (1990): • This act is a wide-ranging legislation intended to make American society more accessible to people with disabilities. It requires accommodations to be made in places of employment, public services, public accommodations and telecommunication services to allow access by those with disabilities.

  23. United States v. Microsoft (2000): • This case looked at whether Microsoft had violated antitrust • laws (like those used against big business in the early 1900s- Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Laws) • The court did not break up Microsoft, but came to an agreement whereby Microsoft has to give access to its systems to ensure compliance with court rulings.

  24. Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg • Why was this an important case? • Busing could be used to achieve integration (voluntary integration not working) • Integrated busses forced the school to become integrated.

  25. Affirmative Action • What is it? • Giving preference to women and minorities in employment and education (to increase diversity)

  26. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke(1978): • Decision: • Quotas can not be used to achieve diversity, but schools do have the right to use race “as a factor” in admissions • More recent cases have said that affirmative action is illegal.

  27. No Child Left Behind Act • Passed in 2001 • Increasing accountability of student performance, flexible funding, more info for parents, research how to improve schools and teachers. • AKA: • No Child Left Behind

  28. Bilingual Education • Why was it an issue? • Increased immigration= many know little English

  29. Immigration • Large number of people immigrating to the U.S. in the past 20 years • Coming from Asia and Latin America • Many settle in the “Sunbelt” and mostly in larger cities

  30. “Graying of America” • “Graying of America”= huge population growth in older Americans (65+) as baby boomer generation ages • Effects= • A loss in money for the social security system. • Growing expenses for Medicare.

  31. 1973: OIL CRISIS —OPEC conspires to sell less oil while massively increasing the price creating huge amounts of inflation. • 1979: Ayatollah Khomeini overthrows IRAN establishing a fundamental Islamic country.

  32. Saddam Husseinattacks Iran because the Ayatollah was asking Muslims worldwide to overthrow their governments leading to a 10 year war. • 1979: SOVIET UNION INVADES AFGHANISTAN: US gives money to the Taliban to help them fight the Communists.

  33. 1979: IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS: Iran kidnaps 52 Americans from the US Embassy and holds them hostage for 444 days. • 1980s: IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR: The US sells weapons to Iranian terrorists and gives the money to Nicaraguan freedom fighters even though Congress said not to.

  34. 1991: IRAQ INVADES KUWAITfor its oil—George Bush leads U.N. forces to invade Iraq (1st War on Iraq). Kuwait liberated but Saddam left in power. • TERRORIST ATTACKS: World Trade Center 1993,U.S. Embassies Tanzania and Kenya bombed 1998, USS Cole attacked 2000.

  35. 9/11- 2001: Twin Towers and the Pentagon attacked by hijacked planes. • The Taliban government of Afghanistan helped hide Osama bin Ladenof Al-Qaeda. • DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITYcreated to coordinate government agencies. • PATRIOT ACT passed to increase domestic surveillance to protect Americans.

  36. George W. Bush attacks AFGHANISTAN because it was helping Al-Qaeda making it a member of the “Axis of Evil” • 2002: 2nd WAR ON IRAQ: UN forces led by George W Bush invade Iraq to bring down Saddam Hussein because he may have Weapons of Mass Destruction(WMDs) • Saddam Hussein is captured, put on trial and executed.

  37. South Africa • (1980s/1990s): US put embargos on goods from South African to try and help the end of apartheid. Under the leadership of Nelson Mandelaand others, apartheid ended in 1994. Apartheid is the legalized segregation of people by race

  38. Somalia • (early 1990s): Somalia experienced both widespread famine and a civil war. Clinton sent troops to help with food aid and to stabilize the country. After about a dozen American troops were killed, Clinton pulled them out of the country. Civil war continued.

  39. Ethiopia • (1990s-present): Ethiopia has been hurt by political unrest and widespread poverty for many years. The US has given a lot of humanitarian aid(billions of dollars) to Ethiopia.

  40. Nixon’s Pardon • Only a month into his presidency, Ford issued a presidential pardon to Nixon, ending the Watergate scandal • Ford explained his actions as helping to heal the nation, but many suspected that Nixon had negotiated the pardon out of Ford in return for making Ford president with his resignation

  41. Helsinki Accords • 1975 meeting of NATO and Warsaw Pact leaders • Soviets promised to uphold basic human rights, but when they did not keep that promise, American enthusiasm for détente began to fade and the Cold War began to deepen once again

  42. Mayaguez Incident • May 1975 • Cambodia seized an American cargo ship off its shore that they claimed was spying • Ford ordered the ship retaken by the Marines, but the rescue attempt (which proved unnecessary since the ship’s crew had already been released) proved costly, with 41 Marines killed • Still, rescue attempt was seen as a success and helped Ford’s reputation both at home and abroad

  43. Election of 1976 • Republicans nominated Ford • Democrats nominated former Georgia governor Jimmy Carter – a Washington outsider who promised to restore morality and honesty to the government, as well as major reforms to US energy, welfare, and economic policies • Carter won in a close election

  44. Economic Failure • Tried to fix the faltering economy by increasing government spending and cutting taxes – it didn’t work • Reversed course and killed his own hard-won programs and tax cuts – that didn’t work either

  45. Deregulation • Carter approved removing government regulations on several industries: • Oil industry – to encourage increased domestic production • Airlines – to open up free market competition and reduce prices for consumers

  46. Amnesty to Draft-dodgers • Carter issued a blanket amnesty for anyone who had fled the US to avoid being drafted during the Vietnam War • This cost him the support of the hundreds of thousands of Vietnam veterans who had done their duty as American citizens

  47. Returning the Panama Canal • Carter convinced the Senate to agree to a treaty which would transfer control of the Panama Canal to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999 • Intended to help repair US image in Latin America

  48. Camp David Accords • 1978 • Carter brokered a peace agreement between Israel and Egypt, creating hope for a stabilized Middle East • Menachem Begin (Israel) and Anwar Sadat (Egypt) shared the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts, but Sadat was assassinated 2 years later, largely due to his willingness to negotiate with Israel

  49. Iranian Revolution • January 1979 • Iran’s pro-US Shah (king) was forced to flee due to civil unrest, leaving Iran in the control of Muslim fundamentalists under the Ayatollah Khomeini • When the US allowed the fugitive Shah to receive cancer treatments in the US, tensions boiled over

  50. Iranian Hostage Crisis • Nov. 4, 1979 • Angry college students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran and seized 66 members of the embassy staff as hostages • Ultimately, 52 hostages were held for 444 days, released only once Ronald Reagan was sworn in as president (female and black hostages had been released almost immediately after the embassy was taken)