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Nonverbal Communication Chapter 6

Nonverbal Communication Chapter 6

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Nonverbal Communication Chapter 6

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  1. Nonverbal CommunicationChapter 6

  2. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication: those behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words

  3. Nonverbal Communication • Often accompanies verbal comm. • Can clarify or reinforce verbal • However, nonverbal can convey meanings on its own

  4. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication Present in interpersonal conversations -Use emoticons if necessary Often conveys more information than verbal 65-70% of meaning from NV (Burgoon) Uses multiple channels Usually believed over verbal If messages conflict, we believe NV

  5. Characteristics of NV Comm. • Primary means of communicating emotion • Esp. vocalics and facial expressions • Ekman: happiness, fear, disgust, anger, sadness, surprise • Meta-communicative • NV used to communicate about our communication • Used to indicate how someone should interpret our message • Smile and wink to indicate sarcasm • Raise eyebrows or furrow brow to indicate seriousness

  6. Functions of Nonverbal Communication • Managing Conversations • Regulates verbal communication • Inviting conversations • Managing conversations • Turn-taking behavior • Ending conversations • Break eye contact • Left-positioning—move body in direction we want to go

  7. Functions of Nonverbal • Expressing Emotions • Facial expressions • “Ready revealers” wear emotions on face • Vocal expressions • Maintaining Relationships • Attraction and Affiliation • Immediacy behaviors—NV behaviors that send messages of attraction or affiliation (flirting) • Established relationships—hug, kiss, change in vocalics, etc.

  8. Functions of NV Comm. • Maintaining Relationships • Power and Dominance • Power—potential to affect another person’s behavior • Dominance—actual exercise of that potential • Artifacts—used as status symbols • “The look”

  9. Functions of NV Comm. • Arousal and Relaxation • Arousal—increase in energy • Could be anxiety (negative) or excitement (positive) • Relaxation—situation of decreased energy • Could be contentment (positive) or depression (negative)

  10. Functions of NV Comm. • Forming impressions • “People watching” • Demographic impression • Age, ethnicity, sex, voice • Sociocultural impressions • Socio-economic status, cultural, and co-cultural groups • Personal appearance

  11. Functions of NV Comm. • Influencing others • Creating credibility • Project a credible image through dress, vocalics, etc. • Promoting affiliation • More persuaded by people we like • Touch is very powerful • Interactional synchrony—convergence of two people’s behaviors—”mirroring” • Concealing information • Deception • Facial expressions, mouth, eye contact, vocalics

  12. Channels of Nonverbal Communication We experience nonverbal communication in many different forms—known as channels

  13. FACIAL DISPLAYS Also known as facial expressions Principle of Facial Primacy—face communicates more information than any other channel of NV Identity—how we know who someone is

  14. Facial Displays • Attractiveness • Consistency in what people find attractive across cultures • Symmetry—between left and right sides of face • Proportionality—relative size of one’s facial features • Emotion • Facial expression is main channel of NV behavior • Women tend to decode/read facial cues better • Nonmanual signals—facial expressions in sign language

  15. Eye Contact • Oculesics—study of eye behavior • Signals attraction, credibility, intimidation • Pupil size—can change based on arousal levels, not just light levels

  16. Movement and Gestures • Kinesics—movement • Gesticulation—arm and hand movements • Emblems—direct translation • Hello, good-bye • Illustrators—complement verbal • “this big,” “about this tall”

  17. Movement and Gestures • Affect displays—communicate emotion • Cover mouth when surprised, coincide with emotion • Regulators—control flow of comm. • Raise hand in class, reduce eye contact • Adaptors—satisfy a personal need • Self-adaptors—scratch, fidget • Other-adaptors—touch another

  18. Touch Haptics Affectionate Caregiving touch Power and Control Aggressive Touh Ritualistic Touch Greetings Athletic Events

  19. Vocalics • Vocalics—characteristics of your voice • Paralanguage—”beside language”—goes along with words we speak • Pitch, inflection, volume, rate, fillers, pronunciation, articulation, accent, silence

  20. Olfactics Sense of smell Considered the sense that is most likely to trigger memory Olfactic association Memories we connect with specific smells Sexual attraction Plays a major role in whom we feel attracted to Find people more sexually attractive if their scent is dissimilar to ours—healthier babies

  21. Proxemics • Study of personal space • Edward T. Hall, Anthropologist • Focuses on Western culture • Intimate Distance”-18” • Personal Distance 18”-4’ • Social Distance 4’-12’ • Public Distance 12’-25’ or greater • Exception—people with disabilities

  22. Physical Appearance • Halo effect • Attribute positive qualities to physically attractive people • What are the costs of a culture that puts so much emphasis on physical attractiveness?

  23. Time • Chronemics—the way people use time • Sends messages about power • Very culturally bound • Not in book but of interest—Edward Hall • Molychronic Time (M-Time) • Time is seen as being a limited resource which is constantly being used up. This perspective is oriented to the future. • Polychronic Time (P-Time) • Views time in a more "circular" fashion, as the turning of the seasons, and time is seen asrenewing itself each year. Promptness is not considered important. This perspective is oriented to the past and/or present.

  24. Artifacts • Physical environment we inhabit • Objects and visual features within an environment that reflect who we are and what we like • How we adorn ourselves can also be considered part of artifacts (hair, piercing, tattoos, dress style, etc.)

  25. CULTURE INFLUENCES NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION • Emblems • Affect displays • Personal distance • Eye contact • Facial displays of emotion Greeting behavior Time orientations Touch Vocalics

  26. SEX INFLUENCES NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION • Emotional expressiveness • Women more expressive: joy, affection, sadness, depression • Men more expressive: anger (some studies disagree) • Eye contact • Women have increased eye contact in US and Japan • Female pairs use more gaze when speaking, listening, and silence • Male-female pairs similar to female-female findings • Personal space • Women approached more closely, allow more space violations, stand/sit closer to others • Men more likely to violate women’s space than women are to violate men’s space

  27. Sex Influences on NV • Vocalics • Men use more fillers and pauses than women • Touch • Men more likely to touch women than women touching men (unless it’s a greeting) • Same-sex pairs, women touch more than men (but difference is reduced in close friendships) • Appearance • Women and men adorn differently • Western culture—women use make-up more than men • Hair and clothing styles generally different

  28. Improving your Nonverbal Skills Learn to adapt to others’ styles Interpreting skills Be sensitive to nonverbals Decipher the meaning of nonverbals Expressing skills Learn from others Practice being expressive