Body Basics • Nonverbal communication includes facial expressions or body movements used to express attitudes or moods about a person, situation, or idea. • #1T/F- Talking is not the most important way we communicate. • #2T/F- Knowing something about nonverbal communication can be helpful when you send messages. • #1IC- Body language is also called the “silent language” because we send messages with our bodies, and people believe and remember more what they see than what they hear. • #3T/F- Humans can produce many physical messages. • #4T/F- Body language is usually more convincing than verbal messages.
Body Basics • #5T/F- Humans tend to use a few gestures over and over. • An open posture is one that is positive and shows you are open to a discussion. • A closed posture is one that is negative and shows you are not interested in a discussion. • Positive body language includes a relaxed posture, arms relaxed, good eye contact, nodding, smiling, leaning closer, and using gesture. • #46B- Research has shown that applicants who nod during job interviews are hired more often than those who do not. • Negative body language includes a tense body, folded arms, speaking hand to mouth, fidgeting, no eye contact, and yawning.
Interpreting Nonverbal Messages • Learning to read body language is complicated. • Facial expressions • #16T/F- We sometimes use our bodies to disguise our true feelings. • #17T/F- Facial expressions are often more convincing than words. • #18T/F- Faces aren’t the best place to discover someone’s true feelings. • Faces can make hundreds of different movements and emotions. • #45B- According to a study by Albert Mehrabian, facial expressions carry the greatest impact in convincing someone of something, followed by tone of voice and, lastly, by words.
Interpreting Nonverbal Messages • Tone of voice • #19T/F- Tone of voice often can reveal a speaker’s true feelings. • Changing the pitch of your voice can give the same word different meanings. (ex: “oh”) • Rate, how fast a speaker talks, is also associated with tone of voice because it too shows the speaker’s feelings. • #20T/F- When people talk fast, they are often excited or anxious. • #21T/F- People talk faster when trying to sell something or persuade us. • #22T/F- People tend to talk more slowly when they are sad or tired.
Interpreting Nonverbal Messages • How to tell if someone is lying • #4IC- The signs of deception are decreased hand activity, increased facial touching, a stiff and rigid posture, and increased body shifting. • #12T/F- Every movement expresses something. • #13T/F- Body movements seldom lie. • #23T/F- It is hard to control body postures because we are not fully aware of them. • #41B- Body movements are almost always honest.
Multicultural Messages • While practiced everywhere, body language is not a universal language. • #2IC- Some signs of greetings are handshakes, bows, touching, kissing, and other less known forms. • Handshakes • #39B- Psychologists regard the handshake as one of the most powerful ways of indicating trust or acceptance. • #6T/F- A firm handshake will usually make the best impression. • Loose, fishy handshakes are not good, nor are “Texas” handshakes that crush the fingers of the other person. • #7T/F- The French are “hand-shakers.” • Don’t pump your arm up and down- just apply even pressure with your whole hand before release.
Multicultural Messages • Bowing • #40B- The most polite greeting of all is the bow. • A bow indicates respect and often reflects social status. • A person of lower rank must bow first and lowest. • Touching • #9T/F- Touch is a powerful communication channel. • #10T/F- In general, women like “touch” more than men. • #11T/F- It is harder to say “no” to a request when being touched.
Types of Space • #43B- We all walk around inside a bubble of personal space. • #15T/F- Americans generally like to stand 2 to 3 feet apart. • #3IC- The four types of space are • A. Intimate distance (under 18 inches/used for confidential exchanges with close friends), • B. personal distance (1.5 to 4 feet/used for regular conversations between friends), • C. social distance (4 to 12 feet/used for people in most social and business situations, • D. public distance (over 12 feet/used for talking to strangers)
Walking • Kinesics is the study of body movements. • #42B- Some have called the way we walk a “second signature.” • #14T/F- People tend to like people who have a bounce to their walk, swing their arms, and take long, strong strides. • When people are sad, people tend to take slower steps and drag their feet. • When people are happy, they move more quickly and light on their feet. • A choppy walk conveys unfriendliness or frustration. • A duck walk conveys an independent and impulsive nature. • A swagger conveys self-confidence and arrogance.
Nonverbal Messages in Conversations • Conversations are those small talks you have with other people. • #24T/F- Conversation does not come naturally to most people. • #25T/F- Conversations follow unspoken rules. • #26T/F- Good conversations can begin with something practical and trite like “How’s the weather?” • Timing refers to the ability to sense when it is appropriate to begin a conversation. • #27T/F- If a person who has been addressed wants a conversation, his reply must not be too brief or unenthusiastic. • #28T/F- Striking up a conversation is easiest when it becomes clear that both of you have something in common.
Helping a Conversation Continue • Being a good listener helps a conversation continue. • Having an “open” posture, feedback, and good eye contact also keeps a conversation going. • #29T/F- Listeners usually look at people who touch their feelings. • #30T/F- It is easy to disguise what your eyes reveal. • #31T/F- People who give feedback to speakers are more popular. • Nodding and gesturing are two ways to provide feedback. • #32T/F- Long nods disturb a speaker; short nods encourage a speaker. • #44B- The nervous laugh is a good example of inconsistent communication.
Taking Turns in a Conversation • #33T/F- The surest way to take your turn at the right time in a conversation is to listen for pauses. • #34T/F- We usually have a sixth sense about when a speaker is pausing in midstream and when she wishes to turn the conversation over to another person. • Simple interruptions occur when someone begins to speak before the other person has finished. • Overlapping interruptions occur when one person tries to interrupt, but the first person continues talking. • Silent interruptions occur when someone takes advantage of a pause.
Taking Turns in a Conversation • The best way to keep people from interrupting is to use authoritative body language, don’t give any unintentional signals that you’re finished, and don’t pause too long. • The best way to keep a person listening is to be interesting. • You can be interesting by being informed on current events, pay attention to the other person’s interests, strive to know a little about everything, and just don’t be boring. • #35T/F- Perhaps the most important quality of a good conversationalist is the ability to be interesting.