Part Two- Theories from: Humanistic Trait Social Cognitive Personality
Humanistic Perspective importance of self and fulfillment of potential
Personality = how you feel about yourself, how you are meeting your “goals”
Free will Self-awareness Psychological growth Focus on healthy personality Individual’s conscious, subjective opinion of self is most important
Carl Rogers Self-concept—set of perceptions you hold about yourself
Positive Regard Positive regard—sense of being loved and valued by other people--can be conditional or unconditional
Conditional Positive Regard I love you when you are doing what I approve of- if not, I will withdraw my love
Unconditional Positive Regard • I love you no matter what you say or do • I still might be mad, but you know I love you- you can tell me anything
Abraham Maslow • Hierarchy of Needs influences behavior- striving for self actualization
Morality, Lack of Prejudice Self-Esteem, Confidence and Respect Significant Other, Family and Friends Economic and Physical security (Health and Job) Food, Water, Oxygen, Etc
Evaluating Humanism Difficult to test or validate scientifically Too optimistic, minimizing some of the more destructive aspects of human nature
Social Cognitive- Bandura understanding personality involves considering the situation and thoughts before, during, and after an event
The importance of: observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experience, Self-efficacy Reciprocal determinism in personality
Self-efficacy Belief that people have about their ability to meet demands of a specific situation (successful or not)
Reciprocal determinism Model that explains personality as the result of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental interactions
Evaluation of Social Cognitive Perspective May not reflect the complexity of human interactions Ignores the influences of unconscious, emotions, and conflicts
Trait Theory Description and measurement of personality differences
Five Factor Model Factors—usually rated from low to high Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness to experience Extraversion
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
Evaluation of Trait Perspective Doesn’t explain why & how personality (description only) Doesn’t address motives, unconscious, or beliefs about self affect personality development
Psychological Tests Test is useful if it achieves two basic goals Accurately and consistently reflects a person’s characteristics Predicts future psychological functioning or behavior
Self-Report Inventory Standardized questions about his or her behavior and feelings The answers are then compared to established norms
MMPI Most widely used self-report inventory Originally designed to assess mental health and detect psychological symptoms
Has over 500 questions to which person must reply “True” or “False” Includes “lying scales”
Strengths of Self-Reports Standardized—each person receives same instructions and responds to same questions
Use of established norms: results are compared to previously established norms and are not subjectively evaluated
Weaknesses of Self-Reports • Evidence that people can “fake” responses to look better (or worse) • Tests contain hundreds of items and become tedious • People may not be good judges of their own behavior
Psychodynamic Testing • Projective Tests • Personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of one’s inner thoughts and feelings
Psychoanalytical ApproachAccessing the Unconscious Mind • Rorschach Inkblot Test • A set of 10 inkblots, without any discernable patterns or images, are presented to a patient. Subjects simply identify what they think the inkblot looks like, and researchers interpret those identifications as personality characteristics.
Black ink. A roughly triangular shape, point down, suggesting a broad, fox like face with prominent ears. Naughty bits: a pair of breasts (rounded projections at top of blot); a vertical female figure, her torso partly visible through a gauzy dress (along center line). The first blot is easy. How fast you answer is taken as an indication of how well you cope with new situations. The best reaction is to give one of the most common responses immediately. Good answers are bat, butterfly, moth, and (in center of blot) a female figure. Mask, jack-o'-lantern, and animal face are common responses too, but in some interpretation schemes they suggest paranoia. A bad response is any that says something untoward about the central female figure. "She" is often judged to be a projection of your own self-image. Avoid the obvious comment that the figure has two breasts but no head. If you don't give more than one answer for Plate I, many psychologists will drop a hint--tell you to look closer.
Black and red ink. Two dark-gray splotches suggesting dancing figures. Red splotches at top of each figure and at bottom center. Naughty bits: penis (upper center, black ink); vagina (the red area at bottom center). It is important to see this blot as two human figures usually females or clowns. If you don't, it's seen as a sign that you have trouble relating to people. You may give other responses as well, such as cave entrance (the triangular white space between the two figures) and butterfly (the red "vagina," bottom center). Should you mention the penis and vagina? Not necessarily. Every Rorsehach plate has at least one obvious representation of sexual anatomy. You're not expected to mention them all. In some interpretation schemes, mentioning more than four sex images in the ten plates is diagnostic of schizophrenia. The trouble is, subjects who took Psychology 101 often assume they should detail every possible sex response, so allowances must be made. Most Rorschach workers believe the sex images should play a part in the interpretation of responses even when not mentioned. You may not say that the lower red area looks like a vagina, but psychologists assume that what you do say will show how you feel about women. Nix on "crab"; stick with "butterfly."
Black and red ink. Two obvious .figures (black ink) facing each other. Butterfly-shaped red blot between the figures; an elongated red blot behind each figure's head. Naughty bits: penises and breasts (at anatomically appropriate positions for each figure). This is the blot that supposedly can determine sexual preference. Most people see the two human figures. Both figures have prominent "breasts" and an equally prominent "penis." If you don't volunteer the gender of the figures, you'll be asked to specify it. By the traditional interpretation, seeing the figures as male is a heterosexual response (for test subjects of both sexes). Describing the figures as female or acknowledging the androgynous nature of the blot is supposed to be a homosexual response. Does it work? Not really--many straights describe the figures as women, and not all gays give a gay response. A 1971 study at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York showed the traditionally heterosexual response (two male figures) to be declining in popularity. The splotches of red ink are usually perceived separately. Common responses are "bow-tie" or "ribbon" (inner red area) and a stomach and esophagus (outer red areas).
Black ink. A simple, bat like shape. Naughty bits: two penises (the "ears" or "antennae"). Rorschach himself thought this was the easiest blot to interpret. It is a bat or a butterfly, period. You don't want to mention anything else. Seeing the projections on the ends of the bat wings as crocodile heads signifies hostility. Seeing the paired butterfly antennae or feet as scissors or pliers signifies a castration complex. Schizophrenics sometimes see moving people in this blot. Many psychologists take particular note of the number of responses given to this plate. If you mention more images here than in either Plate IV or VI, it is suggestive of schizophrenia.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • Slightly less ambiguous that the inkblot • uses real pictures of objects or people • participant is asked to say what is going on in the picture, what has happened just before the event depicted and what will happen afterwards. • Like the inkblot, because the scene is ambiguous, the individual will project onto the scene something of themself and in this way their 'inner' or hidden self will be revealed. • The validity of projective tests is very difficult to assess and therefore they must be used with extreme caution.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • what is going on in the picture? • what has happened just before the event depicted? • what will happen next?
what is going on in the picture? • what has happened just before the event depicted? • what will happen next? Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)