PERSONALITY • Performance and participation are determined by personality. There are 3 THEORIES of PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT. • TRAIT PERSPECTIVE: Personality is made up of many SECONDARY TRAITS that we INHERIT from our PARENTS. Behaviour is INNATE, GENETICALLY determined, STABLE and CONSISTENT in all situations. Behaviour = Function of Personality (B = F(P)) EYESENCK’s model identifies 4 primary personality traits or types: A) Neurotic B) Stable C) Introvert D) Extrovert. In 1975 he added a 3rd scale called PSYCHOTICISM also called MENTAL TOUGHNESS or being TOUGH MINDED. This describes the capacity to cope with pressure. It assesses a persons PERSONALITY PROFILE with a test called the EPQ – Eyesenck’s Personality Questionnaire CATTELL believed in TRAIT theory but believed more than 3 dimensions were needed. This led to Cattell’s16 PF (Personality Factor) TEST GIRDANIO was a trait theorist. He proposed that there are 2 DISTINCT PERSONALITIES – TYPE A (competitive, works fast, ambitious, controlling, stressed) and TYPE B (non competitive, works slowly, low ambition, not controlling, less prone to stress). This is NARROW BAND
PERSONALITY • SOCIAL LEARNING PERSPECTIVE : All behaviour is LEARNED through ENVIRONMENTAL experiences. It is NOT GENETIC. Behaviour = Function of Environment (B = F(E)). BANDURA believed there are 2 PROCESSES in SOCIAL LEARNING A) Behaviour of others is IMITATED by observation and is VICARIOUS (you watch the performance) B) Behaviour is endorsed by SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT. There are 4 CONDITIONS that support SOCIAL LEARNING: 1) If the demonstrator is a SIGNIFICANT OTHER 2) If the Role model has POWER 3) Observer and Role Model are same GENDER 4) The observer wants to adopt the NORMS of a new CULTURE.
PERSONALITY 3) INTERACTIONIST APPROACH: (Hollander 1967). Behaviour is a combination of the influence of TRAITS and EXPERIENCES . It has 3 levels. 1) TYPICAL RESPONSES: These are LEARNED behaviours and are CHANGEABLE. A person responds to the ENVIRONMENT 2) PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE: The True Self. It is STABLE, but difficult to research 3) ROLE RELATED BEHAVIOUR: This is DYNAMIC and CHANGEABLE. An individual fulfils more than one role in a day. It is a consequence of the IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT. Behaviour = FUNCTION of PERSONALITY X ENVIRONMENT (B = F(P X E)) Genetically Inherited Traits are triggered by the Environmental. Behaviour is therefore UNPREDICATABLE The 4 factors that influence how we respond in any situation are: GENETICS, PAST EXPERIENCES, NATURE OF THE SITUATION, PERSONAL FREE WILL
PERSONALITY INTROVERTS are shy, reserved, prefer isolation, are quickly aroused, have a high RAS sensitivity. EXTROVERTS affiliate well with others, are outgoing, become aroused more slowly, have low RAS sensitivity. NEUROTIC have unpredictable moods and emotions, experience high stress and recover slowly from it. STABLE have predictable emotions and moods, don’t have high stress and recover rapidly from it A TRAIT is a single personality characteristic which causes a person to behave in a certain way. GENES are the biological units of inheritance which determine physical and psychological characteristics. The RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS) states that introverts are more easily aroused than extroverts because of the sensitivity of the this part of the brain.
PERSONALITY PROFILING • Research into the differences of personalities of athletes and non athletes is common. Eyesenck found athletes scored highly in PSYCHOTISM and EXTROVERSION. Shurr found athletes to be INDEPENDENT and LESS ANXIOUS than non athletes. However McKelvie found no differences in extroversion but athletes were more STABLE. Research is INCONCLUSIVE • Personality Profiling can IDENTIFY TRAITS that psychologists could then recommend sports to those people. This may increase PARTICIPATION. Sport and exercise cannot though change personality. • All individuals differ in their response to sporting situations. Personality profiling has 7 LIMITATIONS when linking sport and personality • PROOF (how) 2) EVIDENCE (lack of) • SUBJECTIVITY (influenced) 4) INVALIDILITY • MODIFICATION (of behaviour) 6) RELIABILITY(accurate answers?) 7) STEREOTYPING (profiling will do this)
ATTITUDES • ATTITUDE is the MODE of LEARNED behaviour that is the TYPICAL RESPONSE of an individual. They are LINKED with personality. It is EMOTIONAL, UNSTABLE and can be ENDURING and CHANGED. • Attitude is directed towards and ATTITUDE OBJECT. This can be a person, a subject or a situation. PREJUDICES can influence behaviour. ATTITUDE PREJUDICE could affect participation in sport. This can affect GENDER, RACE, AGE etc. Prejudice can be NEGATIVE and POSITIVE (favouritism) • Attitudes are FORMED mainly through previous EXPERIENCES. SOCIALISATION (interaction with others) can also form it. The PEER GROUP is the most POWERFUL influence in teenagers. Other factors include SOCIAL CLASS, CULTURE (race, religion) and SOCIETY. • The TRIADIC MODEL OF ATTITUDE: 1) COGNITIVE component. This is the KNOWLEDGE about an attitude object. 2) AFFECTIVE component. This is the EMOTIONAL RESPONSE to an attitude object 3) BEHAVIOURAL component. This is how you RESPOND to an attitude object. • Attitudes are POOR PREDICTORS of behaviour. Just because someone has a positive attitude to exercise does not mean they will participate. Social and situational factors can affect it. However if the attitude is more SPECIFIC (he likes circuit training) they are more likely to participate
ATTITUDES • There are 2 Theories about how to CHANGE attitudes. • COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY: Dissonance is EMOTIONAL CONFLICT. If two attitude components oppose each other then the person experiences discomfort. EG: A person who needs to lose weight but has had bad previous experiences of exercise. If one component can be changed then there is a chance of changing the whole attitude. • PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION THEORY: This can be used in cognitive dissonance as a technique in changing attitude. There are 4 ELEMENTS. • PERSUADER. This person needs to have high STATUS or be SIGNIFICANT. When a positive attitude is reinforced by them it is called BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION • MESSAGE. The message must be presented in a way which motivates the recipient to change their attitude • RECIPIENTS. If the recipient wants to change it is much easier • SITUATION Attitudes are easy to change if there are other PERSUADERS present Apply the Triadic Model and both Theories. Critically evaluate all of them.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION • ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION links personality with the person’s degree of COMPETITIVENESS. How motivated is the person to succeed? Some psychologists believe it is NATURAL (Murray) and some think it is LEARNED (Bndura) Others believe it is a mix of the 2. These INTERCATIONISTS include Atkinson & McClelland. They believe Achievement Motivation is a TRAIT which is activated by a SITUATION. The situation has 2 elements 1) The PROBABILITY of SUCCESS and 2) The INCENTIVE VALUE of SUCCESS (how much pleasure is gained from it) • The 2 PERSONALITY TRAITS which determine Achievement Motivation are: • HIGH NEED TO ACHIEVE (high Nach). Associated with low need to avoid failure (low Naf). Desire to succeed outweighs the fear of failure. Elements include: APPROACH behaviour, CHALLENGE, RISKS, PERSISTENCE, success is due to INTERNAL factors, failure is due to EXTERNAL factors and is a ROUTE to success, aspire to MASTERY ORIENTATION • LOW NEED TO ACHIEVE (low Nach) associated with high need to avoid failure (high Naf) The fear of failure outweighs the desire to succeed. Elements include AVOIDANCE behaviour, REJECT challenge, DECLINE risks, GIVES UP, success is due to EXTERNAL factors, failure is due to INTERNAL factors and is the route to another, LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Performers who regard success as victory over other people are said to have EGO GOAL ORIENTATION. People who regard success on the basis of personal improvement are said to have TASK ORIENTATION. SPORTS SPECIFIC ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION is competitiveness and the motivation to achieve in sport. Athletes favour task orientation (performance goals) while non athletes preferred ego goal orientation Apply these concepts: 1) In 50/50 situations where there is an equal chance of success or failure, what is the likely response of the High Nach personality and the Low Nach personality. What would you expect to see them to do in these situations? 2) What would happen if the performer was being watched , evaluated or assessed? 3) Identify 2 situations that you have experienced in sport. describe one which would have resulted in high incentive value and one which would have given low incentive value. Give reasons why 4) Describe when you have experienced EGO GOAL and TASK ORIENTATION
ATTRIBUTION THEORY • Attribution Theory identifies the reasons given by performers to explain success and failure. It has powerful implications for achievement related behaviour. Weiner’s MODEL OF ATTRIBUTION has 2 dimensions. • LOCUS OF CAUSALITY. This identifies the PERCEIVED cause of success or failure. EFFORT and ABILITY represent internal factors and TASK DIFFICULTY and LUCK are the environmental variables • STABILITY. This is whether attributions are STABLE or UNSTABLE. That is its degree of PERMANENCE • Attributing failure to external causes is often used by coaches. Internal attributions are often used to reinforce success. High Nach attribute their own success and failure this way. This is ATTRIBUTION BIAS • Low achievers attribute failure to internal factors and success to external factors. This is NEGATIVE APPLICATION of ATTRIBUTION • ATTRIBUTION TRAINING involves changing the performers PERCEPTION of the causes of failure. It can convert learned helplessness into mastery orientation and can increase confidence, pride, self esteem, expectation of success, incentive value and task orientation.
AGGRESSION • Aggression is FORCEFUL BEHAVIOUR in sport. There are 2 types • HOSTILE AGGRESSION: deliberate intention to harm or injure another • CHANNELLED AGGRESSION: often called assertion it involves robust play towards completing a skill and not inflicting injury. • An ANTECEDENT is a prior event which can lead to aggression. There are 10 • Actual or Perceived UNFAIRNESS • FRUSTRATION at poor performance • DISPLACED AGGRESSION To change the direction of aggression – play harder • Excessive PRESSURE to win • RETALIATION • COPYING the behaviour of others • NATURE of the game • REACTION to HOSTILE SITUATION (crowds) • LOSING HEAVILY • ILL FEELING and prior RIVALRY
4 THEORIES OF AGGRESSION • INSTINCT THEORY: (Freud/Lorenz) This is a TRAIT view of behaviour and says that behaviour is GENTIC, PREDICTABLE and that everyone has a trait of violence. The DEATH INSTINCT (Freud) and aggressive energy must be RELEASED as it keeps building up (Lorenz) • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: (Bandura) Aggression is LEARNED from role models and NURTURED through ENVIRONMENTAL factors. It becomes accepted if it is REINFORCED. It is common in GROUPS • FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS: (Dollard) This is an INTERACTIONIST theory. Frustration develops when goal directed behaviour is blocked. This increases when the goal is EGO or OUTCOME orientated. Frustration from the environment TRIGGERS the aggressive GENE. If the aggression is successful the person FEELS GOOD and frustration RELEASED. This is CATHARTICISM. If aggression fails or results in punishment FURTHER FRUSTRATION is generated. • AGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS: (Berkowitz) An INTERCATIONIST approach. Frustration leads to increased arousal but this creates READINESS for aggression which is triggered only when the relevant ENVIRONMENTAL CUE is present
ELIMINATION OF AGGRESSION • There are 2 METHODS to eliminate aggression • COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES: These are PSYCHOLOGICAL strategies designed to LOWER AROUSAL. They include IMAGERY and MENTAL REHEARSAL. POSITIVE SELF TALK and REPEATING WORDS or PHRASES. DISTANCING one self can help as can WALKING AWAY. Some athletes REASON with themselves • SOMATIC TECHNIQUES: These are PHYSIOLOGICAL strategies such as RELAXATION techniques and BREATHING exercises. BIO FEEDBACK is used to give information about the physiological state. Roles of RESPONSIBILITY are given and non aggressive behaviour reinforced. Aggression can be controlled through ATTRIBUTION giving reasons for success and failure . Coaches could set TASK ORIENTATED environments instead of EGO GOALS. Increased aggression can lead to UNDER ACHIEVEMENT, reduced CONCENTRATION, increased chance of INJURY, being SENT OFF, LEARNED HELPLESSNESS and reduced PARTICIPATION levels
GROUP DYNAMICS OF PERFORMANCE • Much interest and research has concentrated on TEAMS and GROUPS. GROUP DYNAMICS refer to the SOCIAL PROCESSES which operate within the group between individuals. It is very DIFFICULT to research. The 2 Foci: • How can GROUP COHESION (unity) be developed? • How can group dynamics or INTERACTIONS (action and reaction between 2 or more people) have an influence on an individuals ATTITUDE and MOTIVATION towards a HEALTHY and BALANCED lifestyle? • GROUPS are SMALL, have structured PATTERNS of COMMUNICATION, MUTUAL AWARENESS and INDEPENDENCE, COLLECTIVEIDENTITY, COMMON GOALS, SHARED PURPOSES, and UNITY. • STEINER’s Model of GROUP PERFORMANCE: (AP = PP – FP) ACTUAL PRODUCTIVITY (means how successful the performance of the team is)= POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY (means the maximum capability of the group) – Losses due to 2 FAULTY PROCESSES (are the factors which can go wrong in the performance which can affect cohesion and performance)
GROUP DYNAMICS OF PERFORMANCE There are 2 FAULTY PROCESSES • COORDINATION LOSSES (Ringlemann Effect) This is a BREAK DOWN in team work because the OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS cannot be sustained for the whole match. ‘Ringlemann’sTUG of WAR experiment’ • MOTIVATION LOSSES or SOCIAL LOAFING: This is when and INDIVIDUAL loses motivation and WITHDRAWS EFFORT or COASTS. This affects team COORDINATION and COHESION. There are 5 INFLUENCES which can cause Social Loafing and DYSFUNCTIONAL behaviour which affects EFFECTIVE TEAM WORK: • OTHERS are not trying in the team • Their performance is NOT VALUED by the coach • To PROTECT their own SELF ESTEEM • Previous NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTION or EXPERIENCES • The task is too difficult – AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOUR Other FACTORS which have an adverse effect on team work include: INJURY which break up the game, lack of INCENTIVE, vague ROLES, low ABILITY, people with LOW TRAIT CONFIDENCE, inadequate LEADERSHIP
FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A COHESIVE GROUP OR TEAM • There are 2 TYPES of Cohesion determined by the nature of the activity • TASK COHESION: This applies to SPORTS teams. It is most important in INTERACTIVE sports like games where players rely on each other • SOCIAL COHESION: This applies to EXERCISE activity groups. It is most important in CO-ACTIVE sports like track and field. SUB GROUPS can form in large groups such as representative squads. A good coach will have to adopt strategies to UNIFY the group. • There are 4 FACTORS that affect TEAM COHESION (Carron) • SITUATIONAL: The elements of the specific ENVIRONMENT situation in which the team will operate. EG: Time, Size of Group • INDIVIDUAL: This is the CHARACTERISTICS of the team members such as MOTIVATION and EXPERIENCE • LEADERSHIP: The STYLE of leadership preferred by the group. • TEAM: This includes collective team GOALS and COMMUNICATION
FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION IN A GROUP OR TEAM • Encouraging PARTICIPATION of individuals within a team can promote cohesion. 9 STRATEGIES can be adopted to address this • Clear ROLES given to each player ensures responsibility • TEAM BUILDING exercises • EVALUATION of each members performance reduces social loafing • PUNISHMENT of non team or cohesive behaviour • SELECTION of team players as opposed to individuals • Development of team GOALS • REHEARSAL of SET PLAYS during practice • REINFORCEMENT of team success • Strong LEADERSHIP • Increased levels of group cohesion helps individuals to commit to exercise programmes. SOCIAL SUPPORT, and endorsement of CONTRIBUTIONS to the team is valued which promotes INTERNAL motivation. TRENDS are followed in teenagers and PEER pressure is strong. The NORMS and values of a group are supported by an individual if they are part of it. If they are not they will adopt a NEGATIVE PERCEPTION to preserve esteem. Overall group MEMBERSHIP has a positive influence on healthy lifestyles
LEADERSHIP • Successful teams have strong leaders. In INTERACTIVE games and exercise groups, their performance is clear. It is less obvious in COACTIVE situations. They have 2 functions of 1) Player SATISFACTION 2) SUCCESS • Leadership that achieves both of these influences LIFESTYLE behaviour • The 9 QUALITIES of an effective leader include: • Highly developed PERCEPTUAL and DECISION MAKING skills • VISION • AMBITION • MOTIVATION • CHARISMA • EXPERIENCE • UNDERSTANDING the NEEDS of others • EMPATHY with team members • Good COMMUNICATION skills • The leadership SITUATION can be • FAVOURABLE: STRONG leader, CLEAR structure, WARM relations • NON FAVOURABLE: WEAK leader, VAGUE structure, HOSTILE relations
LEADERSHIP • An EMERGENT leader already belongs to a group. A PRESCRIBED leader is selected from outside. There are 3 CHARACTERISTICS of Leaders. The characteristic ADOPTED depends on the situation’s FAVOURABLENESS. • The AUTOCRATIC Leader: Also called TASK ORIENTATED leaders. They make ALL DECISIONS and want to complete the task as QUICK and as EFFECTIVELY as possible. Their style is AUTHORITARIAN and does not consult the opinions of others. They do NOT DELEGATE. The focus is on GROUP PERFORMANCE and achieving GOALS. It is effective when QUICK decisions are needed for LARGE groups. Also needed in DANGEROUS or life THREATENING situations. Effective in MOST & LEAST favourable situation • The DEMOCRATIC Leader: or SOCIAL or PERSON ORIENTATED leaders. They SHARE decisions and DELEGATE. They value INTERPERSONAL relationships in the team. They give OWNERSHIP of the task to individuals which increases EFFORT and UNITY. It is effective in COACTIVE games or when TIME is not an issue. Effective in MODERATELY favourable situation • The LAISSEZ FAIRE Leader: The leader allows the GROUP to make the decision on its own. Can happen AUTOMATICALLY and can result in group AGGRESSION amongst each other, and loss of group DIRECTION if leader is INADEQUATE. This is NON INTERFERENCE from authority.
LEADERSHIP • In the following situations explain why you would use AUTOCRATIC or DEMOCRATIC leadership • Groups are HOSTILE or when they are FRIENDLY • Groups are LARGE or SMALL • Team prefers INSTRUCTIONS or team prefers INTERPERSONAL approach • It is COGNITIVE or AUTONOMOUS stage of learning • It is a DANGEROUS situation or there is none • There are TIME constraints or there are none • The leaders personality is DEMOCRATIC or AUTHORITARIAN • The leader is MALE or when the leader is FEMALE
A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF LEADERSHIP THEORIES • TRAIT APPROACH: Leaders are BORN and have STABLE dispositions such as INTELLIGENCE, ASSERTIVENESS and SELF CONFIDENCE. This theory is NOT a good PREDICTOR of behaviour. It is UNLIKELY that DOMINANT traits mean successful leaders. The GREAT MAN theory of leadership is that the qualities are INHERITED by SONS (not daughters) from their FATHERS • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: Leadership is LEARNED and is a result of the ENVIRONMENT. People IMITATE current leaders if the view them to have handled a situation well. This is called VICARIOUS reinforcement. • INTERACTIONIST THEORY: Leaders emerge because of INHERITED ability and LEARNED skills. They are more likely to occur if a situation TRIGGERS the traits. This is a more realistic view in Sport • There are 5 CATEGORIES of leadership: CHELLADURAI • TRAINING and INSTRUCTIONAL behaviour (hard work and instructional) • DEMOCRATIC behaviour (group members make decisions) • AUTOCRATIC behaviour (Task centred and leader makes decision) • SOCIAL SUPPORT behaviour (leader shows concern for welfare of individuals in the group) • REWARDING behaviour (positive feedback reinforces the value of cohesion)
A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF LEADERSHIP THEORIES • THE MULTI DIMENSIONAL MODEL: CHELLANDURAI (1978) said leaders are judged on 2 OUTCOMES. 1) The degree of SUCCESS in the task 2) the degree of SATISFACTION by the group. There are 3 influences or ANTECEDENTS that determine the behaviour adopted by the leader. A) SITUATIONAL characteristics (type of activity, group numbers, time, strengths of the opposition) B) LEADER characteristics (leader’s skill and experience, and their personality – TASK or PERSON orientated) C) GROUP MEMBER characteristics (age, gender, motivation, competence, experience) • There are 3 TYPES OF LEADER BEHAVIOUR that impact on the leader. All 3 need to agree or be CONGRUENT if the leader is to be successful • REQUIRED behaviour: What OUGHT to be done! (Tactics) • PREFERRED behaviour: What the GROUP WANT the leader to do. • ACTUAL behaviour: The actual behaviour CHOSEN by the leader • The Multi Dimensional Model predicts that the degree of congruence determines one of the 3 outcomes. REWARD influences young children
SOCIAL FACILITATION AND INHIBITION • Most sport takes place with CO-ACTORS. These can be spectators. These people influence performances and AROUSAL. The effect can be POSITIVE and NEGATIVE. SOCIAL FACILITATION takes place when arousal is positive and the result is enhanced. SOCIALINHIBITION takes place when audience induced arousal has a negative effect on performance. There are 2 THEORIES: • The DRIVE Theory of Social Facilitation: (Zajonc1965) There are different types of audience. Arousal caused by an audience is INNATE. He linked it with the DRIVE theory of arousal. The MERE PRESENCE of OTHERS is sufficient to increase arousal and produce the DOMINANT RESPONSE. These are LEARNED behaviours. HIGH arousal is beneficial at the AUTONOMOUS phase because the dominant behaviour would tend towards the correct response. It also helps the performance of SIMPLE and GROSS skills. At the ASSOCIATIVE stage the dominant response is likely to be incorrect. High arousal causes MISTAKES. McCullagechallenged this stating that skills were learned more when co-actors were LEARNERS but were also of higher ABILITY. Critically evaluate this theory. Is the effect of an audience the same on all performers? What about Fine skills?
SOCIAL FACILITATION AND INHIBITION 2) EVALUATION APPREHENSION: (Cottrell 1968) Proposed the mere presence of others did not always raise arousal. It happened only when the performer perceived that they were being ASSESSED or JUDGED. • 3 more Theories relate to the FACILITATION or INHIBITION of performance • The HOME ADVANTAGE EFFECT: large support provides the home team with an advantage • The PROXIMITY EFFECT: The LOCATION of the audience in relation to performance is important for social facilitation or inhibition. If they are CLOSE it is more intense. The OUTCOME is determined by the PERSONALITY, STAGE OF LEARNING and level of EXPERIENCE • DISTRACTION - CONFLICT THEORY: The LIMITATIONS of the performers ATTENTIONAL capacity can affect performance. Attention can only be given to a LIMITED number of CUES. SPECTATORS demand the same amount of data as does the situation adding to DISTRACTION. SIMPLE tasks are performed well in front of audience and COMPLEX skills are not • The following 9 STRATEGIES help athletes cope with audiences: 1) MENTALIMAGERY 2) SELECTIVE ATTENTION 3) SELF TALK 4) PRACTICE in front of audience 5) OVERLEARNING 6) SELF EFFICACY 7) POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT 8) ATTRIBUTION 9) CONCENTRATION
GOAL SETTING • An individual’s PERCEPTION of their own ABILITY to succeed in a PERFORMANCE is the major factor which determines PARTICIPATION and PERSISTENCE in a task. POSITIVE SELF PERCEPTION encourages healthy balanced lifestyles. GOAL SETTING can develop self perception, reduce ANXIETY, and facilitate OPTIMUM performance by increasing CONFIDENCE • Goal Setting influences performance in 4 ways: • It directs the ATTENTION onto the desired task 2) It increases the EFFORT applied by the athlete 3) It improves PERSISTENCE when a task becomes difficult 4) The participant is MOTIVATED to use different approaches to learning tasks • The S.M.A.R.T.E.R principle is effective. Specific, Measurable, Accepted, Realistic, Time Based, Exciting, Recorded. • Goals can be either : • TIME BASED: LONG term goals are the ultimate AIM. SHORT term goals are the MOST EFFECTIVE and are the link between CAPABILITY and ACHIEVEMENT. MEDIUM term goals ENDORSE the effectiveness of the short term goals and are good IMPROVEMENT INDICATORS
GOAL SETTING • ACTIVITY BASED GOALS: There are 3 Types: • PERFORMANCE: Judgements made about previous performances • PROCESS: These are concerned with improving performance through TECHNIQUE • PRODUCT: Also called OUTCOME goals. These defeat other competitors and are concerned with WINNING OUTCOMES. A total focus on these can cause ANXIETY causing distraction. These goals are also controlled by EXTERNAL FACTORS such as LUCK or TASK DIFFICULTY. • The MOST EFFECTIVE method is to combine performance and process goals. They give the performer more CONTROL and can indicate COMMITMENT to training and competition • They are more effective in COMPETITVE sport when set as FORMAL targets by the coach but they must be NEGOTIATED (agreed) • Exercise and FITNESS CLASS goals are different. Maintaining an exercise programme is called EXERCISE ADHERENCE. These need to be SET by the participant and be FLEXIBLE. When set correctly they increase EFFICACY • Goals that are TOO EASY do not sustain interest. Those that are TOO HARD cause frustration. MODERATE difficulty goals lead to the best performance
SPORTS CONFIDENCE THEORY • Vealey 1986 measures 2 FACTORS: • TRAIT SPORTS CONFIDENCE (SC Trait). This is INNATE and a NATURAL disposition. It is STABLE. It is a GENERALISED individual belief about how much their ABILITY will bring about SUCCESS in a WIDE range of sports. Therefore it is GLOBAL. • STATE SPORTS CONFIDENCE (SC State). This can be LEARNED and be UNSTABLE and CHANGEABLE. It is the individuals belief about whether their ability will bring about success at ONE MOMENT. The degree of this is determined by the INTERACTION of 3 FACTORS. • TRAIT SPORTS CONFIDENCE • The OBJECTIVE SPORTS SITUATION (The type of skill to perform) • The performers COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION (Is the performer competitive? Do they strive for PERFORMANCE or PRODUCTS goals)
SPORTS CONFIDENCE THEORY • The SUBJECTIVE OUTCOME is the extent to which the athlete perceives the performance has been successful. These produce 2 EFFECTS: • Perceived as GOOD it will INCREASE Trait and State Sports Confidence. This will increase SC State, increase SELF EFFICACY, increase CONFIDENCE, facilitate APPROACH behaviour • Perceived as POOR it will DECREASE Trait and State Sports Confidence. This will DEPRESS SC state, reduce SELF EFFICACY, reduce CONFIDENCE, cause AVOIDANCE behaviour. • VEALEY 1986 identified 6 STRATEGIES to improve state sports confidence: • MASTERY OF SKILL: The performer feels progress has been made. Skill has been acquired • STYLING: Confidence increases if a performance can be performed well to significant others • PHYSICAL & MENTAL PREPARATION: Increases the likelihood of success • SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT: Praise by significant others. Especially in teams • EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP: promotes team member confidence • ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT: Those lacking confidence will be helped if working conditions are suitable. Don’t observe a novice
SELF CONFIDENCE and SELF EFFICACY • SELF ESTEEM is a consistent degree of CONFIDENCE across a wide RANGE of situations. It is a GENERAL DISPOSITION which is STABLE and GLOBAL. Self confidence influences MOTIVATION and is a factor in whether someone participates. When people become confident that they are able to EXCEL in a skill, they acquire SELF EFFICACY. This is their PERCEPTION about their competency. Self Efficacy is therefore UNSTABLE and CHANGEABLE. Within the same sport an athlete may have high and low efficacy. • People with HIGH efficacy adopt APPROACH behaviour, seek challenges, persevere and ATTRIBUTE internal factors to success. Those with LOW efficacy adopt AVOIDANCE behaviour, give up, become anxious and ATTRIBUTE failure to internal factors, inducing LEARNED HELPLESSNESS. Self Efficacy can therefore be POWERFUL in raising or reducing expectations of success. • Efficacy Levels DETERMINE expectations which influence the commitment to activities. Efficacy can be changed by the input of 4 TYPES of information. These form the basis of the SELF EFFICACY THEORY
SELF EFFICACY THEORY • The 4 Types of Input that can affect Self Efficacy are • PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Those with learned helplessness or lacking in confidence should be reminded of previous SUCCESSES in a related skill • VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES: The athlete needs to watch athletes of SIMILAR ABILITY perform the skill. This reduces WORRY • VERBAL PERSUASION: Athletes can use SELF TALK or PERSUASION to increase self belief. • CONTROL OF AROUSAL: This is how the athlete EVALUATES their INTERNAL FEELINGS and PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE such as increased heart rate. These can heighten worry
ATTENTIONAL CONTROL • Attentional Control is the extent to which a performer can FOCUS AWARENESS onto the ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI that are most relevant during an activity. SELECTIVE ATTENTION is focusing onto a specific CUE and this requires CONCENTRATION. The length of TIME you can concentrate for is called the SPAN of concentration. Selective Attention or Concentration can be directed by 2 factors: • EXTERNAL FACTORS such as STIMULUS INTENSUITY. This is how DOMINANT and DISTINCT it is compared to other stimuli. • WARNING CUES: This is a stimuli that presents itself BEFORE a major cue. EG: The command ‘Get Set’ before the gun firing in the 100m • The most important determinants are: • COGNITION : this is the mental process involved in ACQUIRING knowledge learning and understanding • AROUSAL: This is the level of ACTIVATION or excitement generated by the CNS. If arousal is low behaviour is LETHARGIC and vice versa. The INVERTED U THEORY predicts that performance is influenced by arousal in a straight forward way. It is in fact much more COMPLEX than that. It requires ATTENTIONAL CONTROL and CUE UTILISATION
CUE UTILISATION HYPOTHESIS: Cue Utilisation is the process which allows MAXIMAL ATTENTIONAL CONTROL which makes decision making and performance much more EFFECTIVE. • The Hypothesis suggests that when AROUSAL is LOW the PERCEPTUAL FIELD of the performer WIDENS excessively and TOO MUCH ACCESS is given to a broad range of often IRRELEVANT CUES. This makes focusing on the most important stimuli very difficult. This leads to a NEGATIVE effect on the efficiency of the information processing system because there are too many stimuli. Therefore DECISION MAKING becomes inefficient. • When AROUSAL is at the OPTIMAL LEVEL the PERCEPTUAL FIELD will adjust and NARROW to the ideal width. Attention is then given to the most important cues. This means SELECTIVE ATTENTION is very efficient and the athlete can fully FOCUS and CONCENTRATE. • However, when AROUSAL increases ABOVE the OPTIMAL THRESHOLD the PERCEPTUAL FIELD NARROWS too much which causes RELEVANT DATA to be IGNORED. This means the information processing system is RESTRICTED. The performer may PANIC and may experience TOTAL DISORIENTATION. This is called HYPERVIGILANCE • This hypothesis does NOT however look at how you ADJUST the FIELD
ATTENTION STYLES • NIDEFFER presented a model of Attention Styles based on 2 dimensions: • WIDTH OF ATTENTION: These can be BROAD to NARROW. Broad attention takes in lots of environmental information including PERIPHERAL CUES. It is essential in OPEN skill situations. Narrow attention is the concentration on 1 OR 2 stimuli. This enables the performer to FOCUS. This is a CONTINUUM. • DIRECTION OF ATTENTION: EXTERNAL to INERNAL FOCUS. These indicate the DIRECTION to which the attention is focused. The External focus is an OUTWARD PROJECTION onto a stimulus. EG: The narrow focus on the ball when making a catch in cricket.. An Internal Focus is when the performers FOCUS has been directed INWARDS and onto the PSYCHOLOGICAL state. These include THOUGHTS, EMOTIONS, and they affect DECISION MAKING.
EXTERNAL Example: Soccer player passing when surrounded by Defenders Example: Tennis Player serving with their eye on the ball BROAD NARROW Example: Athlete engaged in Mental Rehearsal Example: Coach addressing the Team INTERNAL
ATTENTION STYLES • This model predicts that attention has MANY EFFECTS. External focus can allow the performer to focus on OUTSIDE factors such as the oppositions position. It can also help DISTRACT from PAIN or FATIGUE in an event. NOVICES tend to do this. ELITE performers do not seek DISTRACTION. They direct attention INTERNALLY because this is FEEDBACK, and it can maximise CONCENTRATION. • The correct ATTENTION STYLE that MATCHES the ATTENTIONAL DEMANDS of the situation. EG: if a SINGLE CUE needs DETECTING the an attention style that is TOO BROAD the information overload would occur. This would cause CONFUSION and REACTION TIME would suffer • The correct attention style can help performers deal with DISTRACTIONS. A narrow focus can block out distractions. • Effective attention can help the performer make POSITIVE ATTRIBUTIONS during the performance by attributing success to internal factors. • ELITE performers can use a RANGE of attention styles and SHIFT their ATTENTION STYLE to MATCH the demands of the situation • A NARROW and INTERNAL FOCUS allows an athlete to MENTALLY REHEARSE prior to their event
EMOTIONAL CONTROL • AROUSAL is the direct influence of physiological and psychological ACTIVATION. This determines the athletes BEHAVIOUR.ACTIVATION describes the STATE OF READINESS. This is directly linked to the athletes arousal and it is experienced just prior to performance • The OPTIMUM POINT of AROUSAL on the INVERTED U HYPOTHESIS is linked to CUE UTILISATION and the athlete’s capacity to SHIFT attention. • This POINT is never the same for 2 individuals because of 3 VARIABLES • PERSONALITY: Extroverts perform best at a HIGH arousal level. Introverts perform best at LOW arousal levels because of the very SENSITIVE Reticular Activation System (RAS) which increases tendency of ANXIETY. • COMPLEXITY OF TASK: SIMPLE skills are best performed when the athlete has a HIGH Optimal Threshold of Arousal. A COMPLEX task requires a LOW level because they are PERCEPTUAL, and have a low ERROR tolerance • LEVEL OF ABILITY: The AUTONOMOUS learner would find HIGH arousal would enhance performance. COGNITIVE or ASSOCIATIVE learners need to concentrate and therefore would need LOW arousal.
EMOTIONAL CONTROL: ANXIETY AND PERFORMANCE • ANXIETY is a NEGATIVE emotional state associated with feelings of WORRY and NERVOUSNESS relating to ACTIVATIO N or AROUSAL. It is considered to be an unpleasant state of HIGH arousal. The relationship between ANXIETY and SPORTS PERFORMANCE is considered to have great importance. In the 1st DIMENSION of Anxiety there are 2 forms : • COGNITIVE ANXIETY: This is the THOUGHT component such as WORRY. • SOMATIC ANXIETY: This is the PHYSICAL component and is associated with increased HEART RATE and Bp. Somatic is TRIGGERED by Cognitive The 2nd DIMENSION relates to the STABILITY of Anxiety: • STATE ANXIETY: This is the athletes IMMEDIATE anxiety in any ONE situation. It is usually a TEMPORARY and EMOTIONAL response to a threat • TRAIT ANXIETY: This is a GENERAL disposition to PERCEIVE situations as threatening. Trait anxiety is part of PERSONALITY and is STABLE. Trait Anxiety determines the DEGREE of State Anxiety that is experienced
EMOTIONAL CONTROL: STRESS • STRESS is the TRIGGER that stimulates increases in Arousal and Anxiety and occurs when an athlete is faced with a CHALLENGE with which they feel that they CANNOT COPE. EG: Penalty Kick in Football. In this case taking the Penalty is considered a STRESSOR. This is the SOURCE of Anxiety and Arousal. Other Stressors in sport include CONFLICT, COMPETITION & FRUSTRATION. • The PREVENTION of LONG TERM STRESS is important for sustaining a Healthy Balanced Lifestyle. However, Stress in the SHORT TERM can be BENEFICIAL to performance. • IZOF – HANIN’s INDIVIDUAL ZONE OF OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE: This proposes that there are INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES in how people respond to ANXIETY. Some athletes succeed when arousal is LOW and some succeed when arousal is HIGH. He concluded that a GENERAL RELATIONSHIP does NOT exist. Each athlete has their own PREFERRED level. Rather than identifying an EXACT POINT of Optimal Arousal, Hanin identified a BAND WIDTH. An athlete is either WITHIN or OUTSIDE their own ZONE of ANXIETY. • RANDLE and WEINBERG later stated that GAMES players have a general preference for a LOW IZOF than INDIVIDUAL athletes
EMOTIONAL CONTROL: PEAK FLOW • CSIKSZENTMIHALYI suggested that QUALITY of SKILL is achieved when the performer is fully FOCUSED and CONTROLLED and they are being INTRINSICALLY REWARDED by the performance. The athlete then experiences SELF FULFILMENT and HAPPINESS. At this point the athlete has achieved PEAK FLOW EXPERIENCE. • MARTENS suggested that Peak Flow Experience is most likely to occur when HIGH SOMATIC AROUSAL coincides with LOW COGNITIVE ANXIETY HIGH SOMATIC AROUSAL LOW COGNITIVE ANXIETY HIGH COGNITIVE ANXIETY LOW SOMATIC AROUSAL
EMOTIONAL CONTROL: PEAK FLOW • There are 8 FACTORS that allow the PEAK FLOW experience • ANXIETY: If the athlete controls COGNITIVE Anxiety they are in their IZOF • CONCENTRATION: Optimal Arousal is achieved when cognitive arousal is LOW as this allows CUE UTILISATION to function • ATTENTION STYLE: Optimal Arousal and Controlled Anxiety allow athletes to match their ATTENTION STYLE to the event’s attentional DEMANDS • CONFIDENCE: This is when the athlete has developed TRAIT confidence and HIGH SELF EFFICACY • GOAL SETTING: The goals of the event are MODERATELY DIFFICULT but they are attainable. A HIGH INCENTIVE value will accompany SUCCESS • ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: The athlete is COMFORTABLE in their environment. Performance is facilitated by the presence of an AUDIENCE. A coach’s POSITIVE FEEDBACK applies POSITIVE ATTRIBUTION • LEADERSHIP: Peak Flow is more likely to be achieved when an athlete is DIRECTED to and OUTCOME in a preferred LEADERSHIP style • GROUP COHESION: A common GOAL and good team COHESION helps promote PEAK FLOW
EMOTIONAL CONTROL: ANXIETY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES • There are 2 TYPES of Anxiety Management Techniques. To reach maximum POTENTIAL the athlete must be helped to develop SELF AWARENESS of arousal levels. The techniques help create or recreate the circumstances • SOMATIC ANXIETY MANAGEMENT: These relate to PHYSICAL processes. There are 2 of these techniques • BIO – FEEDBACK: This is measuring PHYSICAL changes when arousal and anxiety occur. This includes HEART RATE etc. If measured it can provide a controlling mechanism to the athlete. However they VARY from individual. To use you must KNOW the athlete. It is TIME CONSUMING and requires EQUIPMENT • PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION (PMR): Devised by JACOBSEN (1929) involves the athlete CONTRACTING each muscle of the body and then RELAXING them. A major DISADVANTAGE is that it is TIME CONSUMING and needs to be used alongside other TECHNIQUES
EMOTIONAL CONTROL: ANXIETY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES • COGNITIVE ANXIETY MANAGEMENT: These relate to THOUGHT processes. There are 4 of these techniques • IMAGERY: There are 2 forms of this: 1) EXTERNAL imagery is when the athlete pictures themselves successfully performing a task. This is very effective but must be of VALUE to the athlete 2) INTERNAL imagery which involves MENTAL REHEARSAL of skills. This focuses on SPECIFIC elements of the skill and not the whole skill. It provides a KINAESTHETIC experience which can help an athlete DESENSITISE in competitive situations. Most effective in AUTONOMOUS learners • THOUGHT SHOPPING: This is a REFUSAL to think NEGATIVELY. More effective in EXTROVERTS and CONFIDENT athletes • POSITIVE SELF TALK: This is ENDORSEMENT of the athletes ability by talking to themselves. It is COMMON practice in tennis players. Only of value if athletes are HIGH STANDARD and are EXPERIENCED • RATIONAL THINKING: Anxiety stems from an IMBALANCE between ABILITY and SITUATIONAL demands. The athlete FOCUSES inwardly on the INTERNAL and NARROW style of attention to EVALUATE the situation. Works for EXPERIENCED athletes