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Integrated Pest Management an introduction

Integrated Pest Management an introduction

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Integrated Pest Management an introduction

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  1. Integrated Pest Managementan introduction By Suzanne Avtges Jessica Matthews Kim Vogt John Gorrell

  2. Integrated Pest Management • Defined as the harmonious use of multiple tactics to control pests to a tolerable level • Widely used to minimize loss to fruit, vegetables, field crops, stored products and forestry • Goal is to limit damage and minimize economic losses in an environmentally acceptable manner • It is recognized that no single approach can offer a universal solution, thus the need for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Knowledge and understanding the life history and mating habits of the pest is essential

  3. Components of IPM • Monitoring: Monitoring and tracking of existing populations allows for early detection of infestation and allows for better determining the quantity and timing of any insecticides that may be used • Trapping: Two strategies are to trap for monitoring purposes or to reduce the number of insects present. Capturing a large enough portion prevents injurious numbers from infesting the area. • Mating Disruption: Reduces the number of damaging larvae and adults that will be present in future generations.

  4. Pest free planting Crop rotation Physical barriers Natural predators Trapping Genetically modified plants Biological agents Physical removal Ecological management Insecticides IPM Methods

  5. Specific Methods • Pest free planting- Assure plants are not infected prior to planting. This minimizes the change for introducing new pests to the area. • Crop rotation - Plant a different crop every other year to minimize adaptation of the pests. • Physical barriers - Cover plants with material to block the pests from the plants. • Natural predators - Introduce natural predators that will feed on the insects • Trapping - Attract and trap the pest to physically reduce their population in the affected area. • Genetically modified plants - They have resistance to the pest thus reducing damage that would be inflicted.

  6. Specific Methods (Cont.) • Biological agents - Introduce natural agents to the area that are harmful to the pests. • Physical removal - Remove and dispose of the pests. • Ecological management - Alter the environment to favor the population of natural predators and minimize that of the pest • Insecticides - Apply chemical agents. This is normally considered on of the least preferred methods due to coat and environmental concerns. • Note: See the last two references listed for a detailed IPM of the cranberry worm.

  7. IPM in History • 8000 BC - Beginning of agriculture • 2500 BC - First records of insecticides (sulfur compounds) • 300 AD - First use of biological controls (predatory ants) • 1732 - Farmers grow crops in rows to facilitate weed removal • 1890 - Introduction of lead arsenate for pest control • 1896 - First selective herbicide (iron sulfate for broad-leaf weeds) • 1901 - First biological control of a weed • 1899 - Breeding program developed for cotton • 1929 - First area-wide eradication of an insect pest • 1942 - First successful plant breeding program for insect resistance • 1950 - First application of systems analysis to control pests • 1969 - Term Integrated Pest Management formalized • 1986 - Germany makes IPM official policy through Plant Protection Act

  8. Pheromone use in an IPM • Baiting traps - Pheromones can be used to attract and lure the unsuspecting insect • Disrupting swarming - False signals can be sent interfering with the pioneer’s call to swarm vulnerable hosts • Minimizing mating - Potential mates can be lured away from the actual location of the opposite sex reducing future off-spring

  9. Pheromones • Highly volatile, unstable chemicals used by insects for communications • Over 100 commercially available for use in IPMs • There are two types of pheromones (sex and aggregation) • Sex - These are wide spread, well documented and are designed to increase the probability of successful mating. Well known in the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) • Aggregation - Found in a number of insects. Most common is order Coleoptera (beetles). Used for mate selection, finding hosts and for defense

  10. Risks from IPM Methods • Release of control organisms could attack non-targeted species • Genetically modified genes can poison non-targeted insects • Surface and groundwater can be contaminated (pesticides) • Harmful residues may remain on the plants (pesticides) • Loss of resistance and effectiveness may occur • Treated foods may pose health risks (genetically modified or treated with insecticides) • Genes may transfer to other plants with negative effects (genetically modified) • Release of natural predators could attack other plants and animals creating more problems

  11. References • • • • •

  12. Summary • An IPM program must be well researched prior to implementation • The researcher must have extensive knowledge of the pest as well as the plants being protected • Successful IPM programs saves billions of dollars each year in crops • Side effects such as environmental and health risks along with economic costs must be prime considerations when developing an IPM • Natural pheromones play a vital role in most programs • IPMs vary from the simple to the complex • In one way or another, we have each benefited from the use of IPM programs.