Bell Ringers • What were some of the matters covered by canon law? • How is the structure of the Church like that of the feudal system? • Why did investiture cause a struggle between kings and popes? • How did the Concordat of Worms create a compromise between the emperor and the Church?
The Church Wields Power Chapter 13 Section 4
Pope Gelasius I • Recognized conflict b/w Church and State • Believed that Religious and Political powers are separate entities. • Believe that… • Pope should bow to emperors in political matters • Emperors should bow to pope in religious matters • Each should remain authority in their OWN realm. • WAS and IS not a reality between the Church and State
Church Structure CLERGY
Rise of Religious Importance • Feudalism and the Manor System created division among people. • Political turmoil and warfare • Church teachings bonded people together. • Church provided a sense of security that gave people a sense of belonging. • Middle Ages was also known as the Age of Faith. • Religion took center stage.
Canon Law • The Law of the Church • IF DISOBEYED • Excommunication • Banished from the Church • Interdict • Many sacraments(i.e. baptisms) and religious services could not be performed in the king’s land • Needed for salvation • Forced German emperors to submit to the pope’s commands.
Emperor Clashes with Pope • Otto I had close ties to Church leading to Church and German officials fearing the growing power of emperor. • Lay Investiture • A ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials • Kings had the power • Pope Gregory VII banned it Henry IV not happy • Henry asked Gregory to step down Henry excommunicated • Showdown in Canossa Henry IV begged for end of excommunication • Concordat of Worms • Church ALONE could grant a bishop his ring and staff • Emperor had the veto power to prevent the granting of a bishop
Lombard League • Alliance that formed to fight against Frederick I • 1176, Battle of Legnano • Foot soldiers used crossbows to defeat feudal knights for the first time in history!