Bacterial Meningitis:Basic Facts • Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the spinal cord and the cerebral fluid around the brain(cdc). • It can be transmitted through bacterial or viral means, though bacterial is often more harmful than viral(cdc) • Knowing if the infection is viral or bacterial is key to getting the correct treatment(). • The image on the top right is of a bacterial strain of meningitis, while the bottom right is a viral strain(cdc).
Microbiology • The menengis are hit directly when bacteria moves into the subarachnoid space in the human body(emedicine).
How can you get it? • It is possible to contract certain types of bacterial meningitis (cdc) • The most common ways of contracting them are through sharing drinks, kissing, or coming in contact with any loose respiratory fluids and mucous (i.e.- Coughing, hacking, sneezing, or spitting)
Symptoms • The most common symptoms to look for are: • Fever, rash, fatigue, headache, stiff neck, a constant drowsy feeling, confusion, nausea and vomiting, and a sensitivity to light.(cdc) • Not all symptoms may show in a single case, but anyone with these symptoms are urged to see a physician immediately.
Symptoms continued • If left untreated, seizures are the next stage followed by a coma, then death. • We carry the ability to contract bacterial meningitis(health.com) • It may be possible for a cross species contamination
Symptoms in infants • Infants showing symptoms of bacterial meningitis are typically: • Slow in their movements or mostly inactive • Infants can be highly irritable • Infants may also be vomiting frequently or may have developed poor feeding habits. • Depending on how far the disease has progressed seizures can be an expected side effect as well. (health).
Infants continued • Any parents with toddlers who have recently been diagnosed with bacterial meningitis need to notify any parents who may have children who come in contact with the infected child. • Any children who have been in contact with a child infected with bacterial meningitis need to be kept from close play with other children until they are tested.
Can it be contracted off of non-human surfaces? • Bacterial meningitis, though contagious through people, is unlikely to infect a person through means that are similar to the rhino virus or influenza(cdc). • Even though it is unheard of, it is common for people that share a close environment with an infected person to contract meningitis, or are at a greater risk for it • Anyone who is in close contact with a case of bacterial meningitis are urged to get preventative treatments (dhpe).
How do you test for bacterial meningitis? • Testing for bacterial meningitis is done with a lumbar puncture test(dhpe, cdc). • The sample taken from the lumbar puncture is tested by growing bacteria in it(cdc).
Treatments • Heavy doses of antibiotics • Anyone in contact with an infected party is urged to be treated with preventative antibiotics. • There are several preventative vaccines in the market today. • If an affected case survives treatment there are several known long term side effects from Bacterial meningitis:
Treatment Continued • There is no preventative treatment for neonates or infants(MFA). • Sepsis is another known side effect of Bacterial meningitis(MFA). • Examples of antibiotics are ceftriaxone penicillin, or oral antibiotics such as ciproflaxin and rifampin (news. health).
When and where was it first discovered? • The first recorded case of Bacterial meningitis was found in Switzerland in 1805. • The first sample of isolated Bacterial Meningitis was collected from a patient in 1882 and officially named Neisseria Meningitidis. • In 1913, Simon Flexner was the first person to report some forward movement in the treating of Bacterial Meningitis. (scienceweek)
Where is it most prominent in the world? • Bacterial meningitis is a world wide disease that can affect anyone at any given place. • Larger cases of bacterial meningitis can be found mostly in third world countries.
Local Cases • One recent local case in the immediate area was in Amsterdam. • The date of death was December 4th, 2002 • The affected case showed no outward signs of infections • One other student showed symptoms • After the case got out, all public schools in Amsterdam were closed till everyone was cleared.
Who is most susceptible? • People of any age can contract bacterial meningitis, but the most cases are found in infants, small children, and young adults • Thought not as common, the elderly are susceptible under certain conditions. (elon)
Why are bacterial cases seemingly more harmful than viral? • Bacterial meningitis is made up of three different and harmful bacterial strains. • Each of these strains combined together make the bacterial strain of meningitis more violent than a viral strain. • Neisseria Meningitidis • Haemophilus influenzae type B • Streptococcus pneumoniae (cdc, dhpe)
Are there dormant carriers • Yes! There are in fact dormant carriers. It is actually possible to contract bacterial meningitis, not show any symptoms, yet still give it to another person(dhpe). • In fact, the person sitting next to you may be a dormant carrier…
Works Cited (pictures) • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Charlotte_Cleverley-Bisman_Meningicoccal_Disease.jpg • http://cdn.wn.com/o25/ph//2008/11/12/6a95626f136a7c33615db4212ef71513-grande.jpg • http://www.kidsfriendlynz.com/Magazine/march%202005/Baby_Rash.JPG • http://www.ndsc.ie/hpsc/media/Media,1800,en.gif • http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/energy-drink-3.jpg • http://www.ahealthyme.com/Imagebank/Articles_images/CoughingWoman.jpg • http://images.suite101.com/254664_10_09_07.jpg • http://www.meningitis101.com/types-of-meningitis-lg.jpg • http://baby411.typepad.com/.a/6a00d834b8c97353ef010536e7df84970b-320pi • http://collegeotr.s3.amazonaws.com/images/blogs/a77f9537d4439ff82df170ef65015da3.gif • http://www.medical-look.com/diseases_images/meningitis.jpg • http://earthfirst.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/orlando-bloom.jpg
Works cited (info) • http://www.health.com/health/library/topic/0,,aa34518_aa34521,00.html • http://news.health.com/2009/02/26/antibiotic-resistant-meningitis-reported-us/ • http://scienceweek.com/2005/sc050211-3.htm • http://www.elon.edu/e-web/pendulum/Issues/2004/9_23/news/meningitis.xhtml • http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial/faqs.htm • http://www.dhpe.org/infect/Bacmeningitis.html • http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/Meningitis/hic_Bacterial_Meningitis.aspx • http://www.hmc.psu.edu/healthinfo/m/meningitis.htm • http://www.meningitisfoundationofamerica.org/templates/content-view/77/index.html • http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/961497-overview