Australia’s Geography SS6G12a. Locate on a …map: the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea, Ayers Rock, and Great Victoria Desert
E.Q. • How have Australia’s location, climate, and natural resources impacted it?
Vocabulary • Outback: dry interior in Australia • Reef: area underwater built up by coral • Bush: remote outback • Coral: small sea animal that lives in colonies • Monolith: single, large rock • Aborigines: indigenous people of Australia • Life expectancy: average number of years a person in a country is expected to live
Australia Australia… • Is the only country on the world’s smallest, flattest continent • Has the oldest, least fertile soils • Has less rain than everywhere but Antarctica • Includes mainland, island of Tasmania, & several other islands • Is surrounded by the Indian & Pacific Oceans
4 Important Physical Regions • Great Barrier Reef • Coral Sea • Ayers Rock • Great Victoria Desert
Great Barrier Reef • World’s largest coral reef • Off northeast coast of Australia • In the Coral Sea • Has world’s largest collection of coral • 400 kinds of coral, 1500 species of fish, 4000 types of mollusks
Coral Sea • Part of Pacific Ocean • Plate tectonics created Coral Sea • Important source of Great Barrier Reef’s coral • Lots of uninhabited islands in Coral Sea claimed by Australia
Ayers Rock • Monolith (large visible tip of massive underground rock) • 12 stories tall (1100 feet) • 6 miles in circumference • Made of sandstone – grey but rusts due to iron in rock • Sacred to Aborigines who call it Uluru
Great Victoria Desert • southwest of Ayers Rock • Gets 8-10 inches of rain each year • Some grasslands, sand hills, & salt lakes • Named after Britain’s Queen Victoria • 160,000 square miles • Mostly uninhabited
Australia’s Climate • Dry across middle • North: tropical – rain forests, mangrove swamps, grassland, desert • Milder climate onsoutheast& southwest coasts – most people live here
Outback • Largest part of Australia • Mainly open country • Resource is mining
CRCT Test Prep pages 174-175 450. Which best describes the geography of Australia? Large semi-arid region with temperate climates in the southeastern coastal areas 451. Which statement describes a monolith? Visible tip of a massive underground rock 452. What is the main reason few people live in the Great Victoria Desert? It is too hot and dry
CRCT Test Prep pages 174-175 453. Where is the Great Barrier Reef? Coral Sea 454. What climate conditions are found in central Australia? Hot and dry
Some Indigenous Animals cassowary Long-nosed bandicoot Red kangaroo koala Tree kangaroo Wombat Tasmanian Devil Sugar Glider Dingo
Location, Climate, and Natural Resources Affect Where People Live • GPS: SS6G13a, Describe how Australia’s location, climate, and natural resources have affected where people live. • E.Q.: How have Australia’s location, climate, and natural resources affected where people live?
Location: The “Land Down Under” • Australia lies about 2000 miles southeast of Asia. • It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean on the east and the Indian Ocean on the west. • It is in the southern hemisphere below the equator.
Location • Seasons are opposite of the United States. • Northern part of the country has a tropical climate because it is closer to the equator. • There are two seasons : wet and dry (winter is wet, and summer is dry and hot).
Location • Deserts are hot and dry. • Nearly 80% of the people live in urban areas; 70% live in cities. • Southeast and southwest coasts are temperate; that is why most people live there.
Location • China is Australia’s leading trading partner because of its location. • It is expensive for people to visit Australia. • New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, and China make up most of the tourists. Most tourists come from New Zealand.
Outback • Outback has many areas of grazing land. • Mining is an important industry. • Australia leads the world in the production of diamonds and lead. They also lead in bauxite which is used to make aluminum. • The minerals are in hard to reach areas. • Roads and railroads have to be built to reach these minerals. • Expensive equipment is needed to move the minerals to the cities.
Natural Resources: 1/3 of Australia’s Economy • Mining – exports more coal & iron ore than any other country; leads in mining bauxite, titanium, industrial diamonds; gold & silver • Arable land – grow enough grain, cotton, cattle to sell extra to other countries (Farming is important!) • Tourism – summer is December to March
CRCT Test Prep pages 181 463. Which nation’s citizens visit Australia more than any other? New Zealand 464. Which resource attracted thousands of immigrants to South Australia in the nineteenth century (1800s)? Gold
CRCT Test Prep pages 181 465. Which month is best for beachgoers in Sydney, Australia? December 466. Which nearby country is important to Australia for trade? China
Impact of English Colonization on the Language and Religion of Australia • GPS: SS6G14a. Explain the impact of English colonization on the language and religion of Australia. • E.Q.: How did English colonization impact the language and religion of Australia?
Australia’s Official Language: English • Colonized by Great Britain – colonists and prisoners spoke English • The gold rush brought settlers – mostly English speakers.
Australia’s Official Language: English • After independence from Great Britain in 1901, Australia passed laws to stop immigration from Africa and Asia. • The government only wanted immigrants that were of European ancestry. • Nowadays some people come from other countries but English is the official language.
Religion in Australia • 1788 – Christianity was introduced when the British arrived. • The Irish convicts were mostly Catholic. • Other convicts & guards were mostly Anglican & Methodist.
Religion in Australia • European settlers – Anglican, Methodist, Catholic, Presbyterian, Congregationalist, & Baptist • Most today are Catholic or Anglican • Less than 5% are Muslim, Hindu, Jewish, or Buddhist
CRCT Test Prep page 185 472. What religion did most of Australia’s Irish prisoners practice? Roman Catholic 473. Why did the Australian government restrict immigration after it became independent from Great Britain in 1901? It only wanted immigrants that were of European ancestry. 475. What language did the first European settlers speak in Australia? English
How the Literacy Rate Affects the Standard of Living • GPS: SS6G14b. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living. • E.Q.: How does the literacy rate affect the standard of living?
Australia’s Literacy and Standard of Living • 99% literacy rate (nearly all adult Australians can read and write) • One of the highest literacy rates and standards of living in the world • But it is worse for Aborigines – many are very poor, have poor health care, and a lower life expectancy.
CRCT Test Prep page 186 476. Which is an effect of a low literacy rate? The population has a lower standard of living. 477. Which is TRUE of the literacy rate in Australia? Nearly all adult Australians can read and write. 478. Which is TRUE about Australia’s standard of living? Australia has one of the highest standards of living in the world.