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CMOS Design Methodologies

CMOS Design Methodologies

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CMOS Design Methodologies

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  1. CMOS DesignMethodologies

  2. The Design Problem Source: sematech97 A growing gap between design complexity and design productivity

  3. Design Methodology • Design process traverses iteratively between three abstractions: behavior, structure, and geometry • More and more automation for each of these steps

  4. Design Analysis and Verification • Accounts for largest fraction of design time • More efficient when done at higher levels of abstraction - selection of correctanalysislevel can save multiple orders of magnitude in verification time • Two major approaches: • Simulation • Verification

  5. Digital Data treated as Analog Signal Circuit Simulation Both Time and Data treated as Analog Quantities Also complicated by presence of non-linear elements (relaxed in timing simulation)

  6. Circuit versus Switch-Level Simulation Circuit Switch

  7. Design analysis and simulation • Spice - exact but time consuming • discrete time steps • circuit models • timing simulation with partitioning and relaxation method

  8. Gate level simulation • faster than switch level • functional simulation • VHDL description used

  9. Structural Description of Accumulator Design defined as composition of register and full-adder cells (“netlist”) Data represented as {0,1,Z} Time discretized and progresses with unit steps Description language: VHDL Other options: schematics, Verilog

  10. Behavioral Description of Accumulator Design described as set of input-output relations, regardless of chosen implementation Data described at higher abstraction level (“integer”)

  11. Behavioral simulation of accumulator Discrete time Integer data (Synopsys Waves display tool)

  12. Design verification Electrical verification • checking number of inversions between two C2MOS gates • checking pull-up and pull down ratio in pseudo-NMOS gates • checking minimum driver size to maintain rise and fall times • checking charge sharing to satisfy noise-margins

  13. Design verification Timing verification • Spice too long simulation time • RC delay estimated using Penfield-Rubinstein-Horowitz method • identification of critical path (avoid false paths)

  14. Timing Verification Critical path Enumerates and rank orders critical timing paths No simulation needed! (Synopsys-Epic Pathmill)

  15. Design verification • components described behaviorally • circuit model obtained from component models • resulting circuit behavior computed with design specifications • no generally acceptable verifier exists Formal verification

  16. Implementation approaches

  17. Custom circuit design • labor intensive • high time-to-market • cost amortized over a large volume • reuse as a library cell • was popular in early designs • layout editor, DRC, circuit extraction

  18. Layout editor 1. Polygon based (Magic) 2. Symbolic layout • transistor symbols • relative positioning • compaction • stick diagram description • design rules automatically satisfied • automatic pitch matching

  19. Custom Design – Layout Editor Magic Layout Editor (UC Berkeley)

  20. Symbolic Layout • Dimensionless layout entities • Only topology is important • Final layout generated by “compaction” program Stick diagram of inverter

  21. Design rule checking • on-line DRC - rules checked and errors flagged during layout • batch DRC - post design verification

  22. Circuit extraction Circuit schematic derived from layout transistors are build with proper geometry parasitic capacitances and resistances evaluated extraction of inductance requires 3D analysis

  23. Cell-based design • reduced cost • reduced time • reduced integrationdensity • reduced performance

  24. Cell-based design • standard cell • compiled cells • module generators • macrocell place and route

  25. Standard cell • library contains basic logic cells - inverter, AND/NAND, OR/NOR, XOR/NXOR, flip-flop - AOI, MUX, adder, compactor, counter, decoder, encoder, • fan-in and fan-out specified • schematic uses cells from library • layout automatically generated

  26. Standard cell • cells have equal heights • cell rows separated by routing channels

  27. Standard cell design

  28. Standard celllayout and description

  29. Standard cell • large design cost amortized over a large number of designs • large number of different cells with different fan-ins • large fan-out for cells to be used in different designs • synthesis tools made standard cell design popular • standard cell design outperform PLA in area and speed • standard cell benefit from multi level logic synthesis

  30. Compiled cell • cell layout generated on the fly • transistor or gate level netlist used with transistor size specified • layout densities approach that of human designers Circuit schematics with transistor sizing

  31. Compiled cell Generated layout

  32. Automatic pitch matching

  33. Module generators • logic level cells not efficient for subcircuit design - shifters, adders, multipliers, data paths, PLAs, counters, memories • Macrocell generators - use design parameters like number of bits • data path compilers - use bit slice modules and repeat them N times - generate interconnections between modules

  34. Datapath compilers Feedtroughs used to improve routing

  35. Datapath compiler results Datapath compilers

  36. Macrocell place and route • channel routing - metal 2 horizontal segments - metal 1 vertical segments • over the block routing (3-6 metal layers used)

  37. Macrocell place and route

  38. Array-based design implementation • mask programmable arrays • fuse based FPGAs • nonvolatile FPGAs • RAM based FPGAs To avoid slow fabrication process which takes 3-4 weeks :

  39. Mask programmable arrays • gate-array - similar to standard cell • sea-of-gate - routed over the cells (high density) - wires added to make logic gates • challenge in design is to utilize the maximum cell capacity • utilization < 75% for random logic design

  40. Mask programmable arrays

  41. Macrocell Design Methodology Macrocell Interconnect Bus Floorplan: Defines overall topology of design, relative placement of modules, and global routes of busses, supplies, and clocks Routing Channel

  42. Macrocell-Based DesignExample SRAM SRAM Data paths Routing Channel Standard cells Video-encoder chip [Brodersen92]

  43. Gate Array — Sea-of-gates Uncommited Cell Committed Cell(4-input NOR)

  44. Sea-of-gate Primitive Cells Using oxide-isolation Using gate-isolation

  45. Sea-of-gates Random Logic Memory Subsystem LSI Logic LEA300K (0.6 mm CMOS)

  46. Prewired Arrays Categories of prewired arrays (or field-programmable devices): • Fuse-based (program-once) • Non-volatile EPROM based • RAM based

  47. Programmable Logic Devices PAL PLA PROM

  48. Fuse-based FPGA’s Actel sea-of-gate and standard cell approach